Bipolar disorder shares depressive symptoms with unipolar major depressive disorder but is defined by episodes of mania or hypomania. Bipolar disorder in its broadest sense has a community lifetime prevalence of 4% and is a severely impairing illness that impacts several aspects of patients' lives. Race, ethnicity, and gender have no effect on prevalence rates, but women are more likely to experience rapid cycling, mixed states, depressive episodes, and bipolar II disorder than men. Patients with bipolar disorder have high rates of disability and higher rates of mortality than individuals without bipolar disorder. Natural causes such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, as well as suicide and other "unnatural" causes are key contributors to the high mortality rate. The costs associated with bipolar disorder include not only the direct costs of treatment, but also the much greater indirect costs of decreased productivity, excess unemployment, and excess mortality.
"Bipolar disorder is a common disabling illness characterized by a recurrent and episodic course involving disturbances of mood, sleep, behaviour, perception, and cognition (Goodwin and Jamison, 2007), with a lifetime morbid risk of approximately 4% (Ketter, 2010). It is estimated that 30–50% of largely remitted bipolar patients fail to attain premorbid levels of psychosocial functioning and much of this disability may be linked to cognitive impairment (Goodwin and Jamison, 1990). "
"In addition, there is evidence of a mounting epidemic of mental disorders in the last 15 years. In fact, childhood bipolar disorder increased 40- fold (Moreno et al., 2007), autism increased by 20-fold, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has tripled (Bloom et al., 2011), and adult bipolar disorder doubled (Ketter, 2010). These data add more confusion about the efficacy of the DSM in delineating " normality " from " pathology " as some of these statistics suggest that almost all of the population has mental disorders. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper we review the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental health (DSM), its scientific bases and utility. The concepts of "normality," "pathology," and boundaries between them are critically reviewed. We further use the concepts of mindfulness and mindlessness, and evidence from cognitive and social sciences to investigate the DSM clinical and social impact and we argue against its assigned overpower. We recommend including alternative perspectives to the DSM, such as mindfulness and positive psychology. We also argue for including mindfulness training in psychiatric residency and clinical psychology programs.
Frontiers in Psychology 06/2014; 5:602. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00602 · 2.80 Impact Factor
"Bipolar disorder is associated with a high rate of morbidity, disability  , and comorbid anxiety and drug abuse  , and has a major effect on social and occupational devel- opment   . The average onset age of bipolar disorder is between 20 and 40 years, while the lifetime prevalence ranges from 0.5% to 1.5%, with equal occurrence in women and men   . Because of its early onset and chronicity, bipolar disorder is one of the top thirty causes of worldwide disability   . "
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