Development and validation of a finite element model of the superior glenoid labrum.
ABSTRACT Pathology of the superior glenoid labrum is a common source of musculoskeletal pain and disability. One of the proposed mechanisms of injury to the labrum is superior humeral head migration, which can be seen with rotator cuff insufficiency. Due to the size, anatomical location, and complex composition of the labrum, laboratory experiments have many methodological difficulties. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a finite element model of the glenoid labrum. The model developed includes the glenoid labrum, glenoid cartilage, glenoid bone, and the humeral head cartilage. Labral displacements derived from the finite element model were compared to those measured during a controlled validation experiment simulating superior humeral head translations of 1, 2, and 3 mm. The results of the finite element model compared well to experimental measurements, falling within one standard deviation of the experimental data in most cases. The model predicted maximum average strains in the superior labrum of 7.9, 10.1, and 11.9%, for 1, 2, and 3 mm of humeral translation, respectively. The correspondence between the finite element model and the validation experiment supports the use of this model to better understand the pathomechanics of the superior labrum.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Mark L Palmer, May 30, 2015
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work was to develop and validate a finite element model of the distal radius to simulate impact loading. Eight-node hexahedral meshes of the bone and impactor components were created. Three separate impact events were simulated by altering the impact velocity assigned to the model projectile (pre-fracture, crack and fracture). Impact forces and maximum and minimum principal strains were calculated and used in the validation process by comparing with previously collected experimental data. Three measures of mesh quality (Jacobians, aspect ratios and orthogonality) and four validation methods (validation metric, error assessment, fracture comparisons and ensemble averages) assessed the model. The element Jacobians, aspect ratios and orthogonality measures ranged from 0.08 to 12, 1.1 to 26 and -70° to 80°, respectively. The force and strain validation metric ranged from 0.10 to 0.54 and 0.35 to 0.67, respectively. The estimated peak axial force was found to be a maximum of 28.5% greater than the experimental (crack) force, and all forces fell within ±2 standard deviation of the mean experimental fracture forces. The predicted strains were found to differ by a mean of 33% across all impact events, and the model was found to accurately predict the location and severity of bone damage. Overall, the model presented here is a valid representation of the distal radius subjected to impact.02/2014; 228(3). DOI:10.1177/0954411914522781
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ABSTRACT: We sought to understand the effects of superior humeral head translation and load of the long head of biceps on the pathomechanics of the superior glenoid labrum by predicting labral strain. Using micro-CT cadaver images, a finite element model of the glenohumeral joint was generated, consisting of humerus, glenoid bone, cartilages, labrum, and biceps tendon. A glenohumeral compression of 50 N and biceps tensions of 0, 22, 55, and 88 N were applied. The humeral head was superiorly translated from 0 to 5 mm in 1-mm increments. The highest labral strain occurred at the interface with the glenoid cartilage and bone beneath the origin of the biceps tendon. The maximum strain was lower than the reported failure strain. The humeral head motion had relatively greater effect than biceps tension on the increasing labral strain. This supports the mechanistic hypothesis that superior labral lesions result mainly from superior migration of the humeral head, but also from biceps tension. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop ResJournal of Orthopaedic Research 11/2014; 32(11). DOI:10.1002/jor.22688 · 2.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rotator cuff tears (RCTs), the most common injury of the shoulder, are often accompanied by tears in the superior glenoid labrum. We evaluated whether superior humeral head (HH) motion secondary to RCTs and loading of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) are implicated in the development of this associated superior labral pathology. Additionally, we determined the efficacy of a finite element model (FEM) for predicting the mechanics of the labrum. The HH was oriented at 30° of glenohumeral abduction and neutral rotation with 50 N compressive force. Loads of 0 N or 22 N were applied to the LHBT. The HH was translated superiorly by 5 mm to simulate superior instability caused by RCTs. Superior displacement of the labrum was affected by translation of the HH (P<0.0002), position along the labrum (P<0.01), and interaction between the location on the labrum and LHBT tension (P<0.03). The displacements predicted by the FEM were compared with mechanical tests from 6 cadaveric specimens and all were within 1 SD of the mean. A hyperelastic constitutive law for the labrum was a better predictor of labral behavior than the elastic law and insensitive to ±1 SD variations in material properties. Peak strains were observed at the glenoid-labrum interface below the LHBT attachment consistent with the common location of labral pathology. These results suggest that pathomechanics of the shoulder secondary to RCTs (e.g., superior HH translation) and LHBT loading play significant roles in the pathologic changes seen in the superior labrum.Journal of Biomechanics 05/2014; 47(7). DOI:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.01.036 · 2.50 Impact Factor