Article

Low serum zinc levels in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India. Indian J Med Res

Department of Laboratory Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
The Indian Journal of Medical Research (Impact Factor: 1.66). 06/2010; 131:793-8.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT India carries approximately 50 per cent of the global burden of visceral leishmaniasis and majority of patients from the poor, rural communities of Bihar State. Zinc is an essential trace element and its relevance for proper functioning of the entire immune system is already well documented. Though low serum zinc levels have been reported in many parasitic diseases, limited information is available regarding zinc status in human leishmaniasis. We investigated to define the relationship between zinc level in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients in endemic and non-endemic regions.
Venous blood was collected from 88 patients, 16 parasitologically confirmed VL, 35 healthy controls from endemic area (Bihar) and 37 healthy urban controls from non-endemic area, Delhi. In all the three groups, levels of serum albumin, total protein (markers of nutritional status) and zinc were estimated by colorimetric methods.
Serum zinc levels were found to be significantly lower (P<0.001) in VL patients than non-endemic controls. The serum zinc levels in VL endemic controls were also significantly lower (P<0.001) than non- endemic controls, but these values were not statistically significantly different from VL patients. However, all samples from Bihar (VL patients and controls) had lower serum zinc levels than non-endemic controls from Delhi.
Low serum Zn levels, in healthy subjects from Bihar and more significantly in VL patients of this region, are possibly associated with vulnerability and endemicity of visceral leishmaniasis in the region. Further studies need to be done to assess the role of oral zinc supplementation in better management and prevention of VL, particularly in endemic areas.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Sarman Singh, Aug 17, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
174 Views
    • "Despite the biological importance of zinc to Leishmania and of its potential toxic effects (Sharquie et al., 1997), no information exists regarding the processes underlying zinc homeostasis in these parasites. That Leishmania must adapt to fluctuations in zinc bioavailability appears, however, evident as they often thrive in people with deficits in this metal (Pasa et al., 2003; Van Weyenbergh et al., 2004; Bern et al., 2007; Amini et al., 2009; Mishra et al., 2010). This study is focused on zinc acquisition in Leishmania. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cellular zinc homeostasis ensures that the intracellular concentration of this element is kept within limits that enable its participation in critical physiological processes without exerting toxic effects. We report here the identification and characterization of the first mediator of zinc homeostasis in Leishmania infantum, LiZIP3, a member of the ZIP family of divalent metal-ion transporters. The zinc transporter activity of LiZIP3 was first disclosed by its capacity to rescue the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains deficient in zinc acquisition. Subsequent expression of LiZIP3 in Xenopus laevis oocytes was shown to stimulate the uptake of a broad range of metal ions, among which Zn(2+) was the preferred LiZIP3 substrate (K0.5 ≈ 0.1 μM). Evidence that LiZIP3 functions as a zinc importer in L. infantum came from the observations that the protein locates to the cell membrane and that its overexpression leads to augmented zinc internalization. Importantly, expression and cell-surface location of LiZIP3 are lost when parasites face high zinc bioavailability. LiZIP3 decline in response to zinc is regulated at the mRNA level in a process involving (a) short-lived protein(s). Collectively, our data reveal that LiZIP3 enables L. infantum to acquire zinc in a highly regulated manner, hence contributing to zinc homeostasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Molecular Microbiology 02/2015; 96(3). DOI:10.1111/mmi.12957 · 5.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Catalase (CAT) requires iron (Fe), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) requires selenium (Se), and both catalyse the reduction in H 2 O 2 to H 2 O and O 2 (Britti et al. 2008). Although studies of human forms of leishmaniasis (Araujo et al. 2008; Mishra et al. 2010) and experimental animal models (Anstead et al. 2001) show an association between trace element serum levels and oxidative stress, there are only a few reports of trace elements associated with CVL (Nieto et al. 2003; Pasa et al. 2003; Adamama-Moraitou et al. 2005). These studies do not report an association of trace elements and oxidative stress with histological alterations , tissue antioxidant enzymes, tissue iron deposition or clinical symptoms in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is a severe and fatal systemic chronic inflammatory disease. We investigated the alterations in, and potential associations among, antioxidant enzymes, trace elements and histopathology in CVL. Blood and tissue levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in mixed-breed dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi, symptomatic (n = 19) and asymptomatic (n = 11). Serum levels of copper, iron, zinc, selenium and nitric oxide, and plasma lipid peroxidation were measured. Histological and morphometric analyses were conducted of lesions in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. We found lower blood catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity to be correlated with lower iron and selenium respectively. However, higher activity of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase was not correlated with the increase in copper and decreased in zinc observed in infected animals compared to controls. Organ tissue was characterized by lower enzyme activity in infected dogs than in controls, but this was not correlated with trace elements. Lipid peroxidation was higher in symptomatic than in asymptomatic and control dogs and was associated with lesions such as chronic inflammatory reaction, congestion, haemosiderin and fibrosis. Systemic iron deposition was observed primarily in the symptomatic dogs showing a higher tissue parasite load. Dogs with symptomatic CVL displayed enhanced LPO and Fe tissue deposition associated with decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes. These results showed new points in the pathology of CVL and might open new treatment perspectives associated with antioxidants and the role of iron in the pathogenesis of CVL.
    International Journal of Experimental Pathology 04/2014; 95(4). DOI:10.1111/iep.12080 · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 03/2009; 128(1):294-295. DOI:10.1016/j.vetimm.2008.10.180 · 1.75 Impact Factor
Show more