Naphthalen-1-yl-(4-pentyloxynaphthalen-1-yl) methanone (SAB378), a Peripherally Restricted Cannabinoid CB1/CB2 Receptor Agonist, Inhibits Gastrointestinal Motility but Has No Effect on Experimental Colitis in Mice
The endocannabinoid system is involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inflammation. Using the peripherally restricted cannabinoid (CB)(1)/CB(2) receptor agonist naphthalen-1-yl-(4-pentyloxynaphthalen-1-yl)methanone (SAB378), we investigated the role of peripheral cannabinoid receptors in the regulation of GI motility and the development of colitis in mice. The actions of SAB378 on whole gut transit, upper GI transit, colonic propulsion, and locomotor activity were investigated in C57BL/6N, CB(1) receptor knockout, and CB(2) receptor knockout mice. The potential for SAB378 to modify inflammation was studied by using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) models of experimental colitis. SAB378 did not modify locomotor activity. SAB378 slowed all parameters of GI motility, and these effects were significantly reduced by the CB(1) receptor antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3 carboxamide (AM251), but not by the CB(2) receptor antagonist 6-iodo-2-methyl-1-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl]-1H- indol-3-yl](4-methoxyphenyl)methanone (AM630). SAB378 did not inhibit GI transit or colonic propulsion in CB(1) receptor knockout mice, whereas its effects were observed in CB(2) receptor knockout mice. SAB378 did not reduce the degree of colitis induced by DSS or TNBS. The actions of SAB378 on GI motility are mediated by peripherally located CB(1) receptors. SAB378 was not effective against two models of experimental colitis, which may indicate that peripheral cannabinoid receptor stimulation alone may not be sufficient to mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids.
"In our study, AM841, but not CB 13 was effective after peripheral administration, suggesting that a central component is important in the anti-inflammatory actions of CB agonists. These data are consistent with the observations made by Cluny et al., who showed that the peripherally restricted CB agonist SAB378 was ineffective at reducing colitis . The most striking observation here was that the anti-inflammatory effect of CB 13 was revealed after central administration, as demonstrated by a significant decrease of macroscopic damage and ulcer score. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and Aims
In an attempt to further investigate the role of cannabinoid (CB) system in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases, we employed two recently developed ligands, AM841 (a covalently acting CB agonist) and CB13 (a peripherally-restricted CB agonist) to establish whether central and peripheral CB sites are involved in the anti-inflammatory action in the intestine.
Methods and Results
AM841 (0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased inflammation scores in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)- and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-treated mice when administered before induction of colitis or as a treatment of existing intestinal inflammation. The effect was absent in CB1, CB2 and CB1/2-deficient mice. A peripherally-restricted agonist CB13 did not alleviate colitis when given i.p. (0.1 mg/kg), but significantly decreased inflammation score after central administration (0.1 µg/animal).
This is the first evidence that central and peripheral CB receptors are responsible for the protective and therapeutic action of cannabinoids in mouse models of colitis. Our observations provide new insight to CB pharmacology and validate the use of novel ligands AM841 and CB13 as potent tools in CB-related research.
PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109115. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109115 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The principal psychoactive component of marijuana, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), activates CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs). Unfortunately, pharmacological research into the design of effective THC analogs has been hampered by psychiatric side effects. THC-based drug design of a less academic nature, however, has led to the marketing of "synthetic marijuana," labeled as K2 or "Spice," among other terms, which elicits psychotropic actions via CB1R activation. Because of structural dissimilarity to THC, the active ingredients of K2/Spice preparations are widely unregulated. The K2/Spice "phenomenon" provides a context for considering whether marijuana-based drugs will truly provide innovative therapeutics or merely perpetuate drug abuse.
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