Naphthalen-1-yl-(4-pentyloxynaphthalen-1-yl) methanone (SAB378), a Peripherally Restricted Cannabinoid CB1/CB2 Receptor Agonist, Inhibits Gastrointestinal Motility but Has No Effect on Experimental Colitis in Mice
ABSTRACT The endocannabinoid system is involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal (GI) motility and inflammation. Using the peripherally restricted cannabinoid (CB)(1)/CB(2) receptor agonist naphthalen-1-yl-(4-pentyloxynaphthalen-1-yl)methanone (SAB378), we investigated the role of peripheral cannabinoid receptors in the regulation of GI motility and the development of colitis in mice. The actions of SAB378 on whole gut transit, upper GI transit, colonic propulsion, and locomotor activity were investigated in C57BL/6N, CB(1) receptor knockout, and CB(2) receptor knockout mice. The potential for SAB378 to modify inflammation was studied by using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) models of experimental colitis. SAB378 did not modify locomotor activity. SAB378 slowed all parameters of GI motility, and these effects were significantly reduced by the CB(1) receptor antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3 carboxamide (AM251), but not by the CB(2) receptor antagonist 6-iodo-2-methyl-1-[2-(4-morpholinyl)ethyl]-1H- indol-3-yl](4-methoxyphenyl)methanone (AM630). SAB378 did not inhibit GI transit or colonic propulsion in CB(1) receptor knockout mice, whereas its effects were observed in CB(2) receptor knockout mice. SAB378 did not reduce the degree of colitis induced by DSS or TNBS. The actions of SAB378 on GI motility are mediated by peripherally located CB(1) receptors. SAB378 was not effective against two models of experimental colitis, which may indicate that peripheral cannabinoid receptor stimulation alone may not be sufficient to mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoids.
SourceAvailable from: etheses.nottingham.ac.uk
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In ancient medicine, cannabis has been widely used to cure disturbances and inflammation of the bowel. A recent clinical study now shows that the medicinal plant Cannabis sativa has lived up to expectations and proved to be highly efficient in cases of inflammatory bowel diseases. In a prospective placebo-controlled study, it has been shown what has been largely anticipated from anecdotal reports, i.e. that cannabis produces significant clinical benefits in patients with Crohn's disease. The mechanisms involved are not yet clear but most likely include peripheral actions on cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, and may also include central actions. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.Pharmacology 12/2013; 93(1-2):1-3. DOI:10.1159/000356512 · 1.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background and Aims In an attempt to further investigate the role of cannabinoid (CB) system in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases, we employed two recently developed ligands, AM841 (a covalently acting CB agonist) and CB13 (a peripherally-restricted CB agonist) to establish whether central and peripheral CB sites are involved in the anti-inflammatory action in the intestine. Methods and Results AM841 (0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased inflammation scores in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)- and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-treated mice when administered before induction of colitis or as a treatment of existing intestinal inflammation. The effect was absent in CB1, CB2 and CB1/2-deficient mice. A peripherally-restricted agonist CB13 did not alleviate colitis when given i.p. (0.1 mg/kg), but significantly decreased inflammation score after central administration (0.1 µg/animal). Conclusions This is the first evidence that central and peripheral CB receptors are responsible for the protective and therapeutic action of cannabinoids in mouse models of colitis. Our observations provide new insight to CB pharmacology and validate the use of novel ligands AM841 and CB13 as potent tools in CB-related research.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109115. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109115 · 3.53 Impact Factor