Role of EBAG9 protein in coat protein complex I-dependent glycoprotein maturation and secretion processes in tumor cells
ABSTRACT Many proteins mature within the secretory pathway by the acquisition of glycans. Failure to maintain the proper distribution of the glycosylation machinery might lead to disease. High expression levels of the ubiquitous Golgi protein estrogen receptor-binding fragment-associated gene 9 (EBAG9) in human tumors correlate with poor clinical prognosis, and EBAG9 overexpression in epithelial cell lines induces truncated glycans, typical of many carcinomas. Here, we addressed the pathogenetic link between EBAG9 expression and the alteration of the cellular glycome. We applied confocal microscopy, live imaging, pulse-chase labeling in conjunction with immunoprecipitation, and enzymatic activity assays in a variety of EBAG9-overexpressing or depleted epithelial tumor cell lines. EBAG9 shuttles between the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and the cis-Golgi, and we demonstrate association of EBAG9 with coat protein complex I (COPI)-coated transport vesicles. EBAG9 overexpression imposes delay of endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi transport and mislocalizes components of the ER quality control and glycosylation machinery. Conversely, EBAG9 down-regulation accelerates glycoprotein transport through the Golgi and enhances mannosidase activity. Thus, EBAG9 acts as a negative regulator of a COPI-dependent ER-to-Golgi transport pathway in epithelial cells and represents a novel pathogenetic principle in which interference with intracellular membrane trafficking results in the emergence of a tumor-associated glycome.
SourceAvailable from: Shuji Kubo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Estrogen receptor-binding fragment-associated antigen 9 (EBAG9) is a tumor-promoting factor of largely unknown function. To assess a causative role of EBAG9 in advanced malignancies, we generated the EG7-OVA and MethA murine tumor cell lines that stably express full-length or truncated EBAG9 protein, using retroviral-mediated gene transduction. Upon subcutaneous inoculation into immunocompetent mice, both cell lines showed marked acceleration of in vivo tumor growth when full-length EBAG9 was overexpressed. Interestingly, deletion of the coiled-coil region, thereby producing truncated EBAG9 protein, abolished the tumor-acceleration effect, establishing the importance of this domain in EBAG9-mediated tumor promotion. However, there was no alteration in in vitro cell proliferation or expression levels of MHC class I and co-stimulatory molecules believed to play a role in immune evasion of tumor cells in these tumor cell lines expressing full-length or truncated EBAG9 protein. Furthermore, both full-length and truncated EBAG9 proteins showed a predominantly cytoplasmic localization in the tumor cells. Collectively, these results suggest that EBAG9 overexpression can be causative in enhancing the malignant properties of tumor cells, and that tumor promotion likely requires EBAG9 intracellular association with as yet unidentified binding partners via the coiled-coil region.International Journal of Oncology 07/2011; 39(1):41-9. DOI:10.3892/ijo.2011.1026 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is primarily a hormone-dependent tumor that is regulated by the status of the estrogen and progesterone receptors. We previously identified EBAG9 as an estrogen-responsive gene in MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells. Upregulation of EBAG9 expression has been observed in several malignant tumors such as advanced breast cancers, indicating that EBAG9 might contribute to tumor progression. In the present study, we generated a monoclonal antibody against EBAG9, and then performed immunohistochemical analysis of EBAG9 expression in specimens obtained from breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen as an adjuvant therapy. EBAG9 immunoreactivity was detected in the cytoplasm of breast cancer cells and was significantly elevated in breast cancer samples from patients who relapsed during or after adjuvant tamoxifen treatment. Positive EBAG9 immunoreactivity was significantly correlated with poor patient prognosis. These results suggest that EBAG9 expression in tumor regions is associated with an unfavorable prognosis in breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen.Clinical Breast Cancer 10/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.clbc.2013.08.015 · 2.42 Impact Factor