Endothelial alpha5 and alphav integrins cooperate in remodeling of the vasculature during development.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
Development (Impact Factor: 6.27). 07/2010; 137(14):2439-49. DOI: 10.1242/dev.049551
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Integrin cell adhesion receptors and fibronectin, one of their extracellular matrix ligands, have been demonstrated to be important for angiogenesis using functional perturbation studies and complete knockout mouse models. Here, we report on the roles of the alpha5 and alphav integrins, which are the major endothelial fibronectin receptors, in developmental angiogenesis. We generated an integrin alpha5-floxed mouse line and ablated alpha5 integrin in endothelial cells. Unexpectedly, endothelial-specific knockout of integrin alpha5 has no obvious effect on developmental angiogenesis. We provide evidence for genetic interaction between mutations in integrin alpha5 and alphav and for overlapping functions and compensation between these integrins and perhaps others. Nonetheless, in embryos lacking both alpha5 and alphav integrins in their endothelial cells, initial vasculogenesis and angiogenesis proceed normally, at least up to E11.5, including the formation of apparently normal embryonic vasculature and development of the branchial arches. However, in the absence of endothelial alpha5 and alphav integrins, but not of either alone, there are extensive defects in remodeling of the great vessels and heart resulting in death at ~E14.5. We also found that fibronectin assembly is somewhat affected in integrin alpha5 knockout endothelial cells and markedly reduced in integrin alpha5/alphav double-knockout endothelial cell lines. Therefore, neither alpha5 nor alphav integrins are required in endothelial cells for initial vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, although they are required for remodeling of the heart and great vessels. These integrins on other cells, and/or other integrins on endothelial cells, might contribute to fibronectin assembly and vascular development.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Binding of α5β1 and αvβ3/β5 integrin receptors on the endothelium to their fibronectin substrate in the extracellular matrix has been targeted as a possible means of blocking tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth. However, clinical trials of blocking antibodies and peptides have been disappointing despite promising preclinical results, leading to questions about the mechanism of the inhibitors and the reasons for their failure. Here, using tissue-specific and inducible genetics to delete the α5 and αv receptors in the endothelium or their fibronectin substrate, either in the endothelium or globally, we show that both are dispensable for tumor growth, in transplanted tumors as well as spontaneous and angiogenesis-dependent RIP-Tag-driven pancreatic adenocarcinomas. In the nearly complete absence of fibronectin, no differences in vascular density or the deposition of basement membrane laminins, ColIV, Nid1, Nid2, or the TGFβ binding matrix proteins, fibrillin-1 and -2, could be observed. Our results reveal that fibronectin and the endothelial fibronectin receptor subunits, α5 and αv, are dispensable for tumor angiogenesis, suggesting that the inhibition of angiogenesis induced by antibodies or small molecules may occur through a dominant negative effect, rather than a simple functional block.
    PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0120872. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120872 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: After spinal cord injury (SCI), a fibrotic scar forms at the injury site that is best characterized by the accumulation of perivascular fibroblasts and deposition of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin. While fibronectin is a growth-permissive substrate for axons, the fibrotic scar is inhibitory to axon regeneration. The mechanism how fibronectin contributes to the inhibitory environment and how the fibronectin matrix is assembled in the fibrotic scar is unknown. By deleting fibronectin in myeloid cells, we demonstrate that fibroblasts are most likely the major source of fibronectin in the fibrotic scar. In addition, we demonstrate that fibronectin is initially present in a soluble form and is assembled into a matrix at 7 days post SCI. Assembly of the fibronectin matrix may be mediated by the canonical fibronectin receptor, integrin α5β1, which is primarily expressed by activated macrophages/microglia in the fibrotic scar. Despite the pronounced cavitation after rat SCI, fibrotic scar is also observed in a rat SCI model, which is considered to be more similar to human pathology. Taken together, our study provides insight into the mechanism of fibrotic scar formation.
    Journal of Neurotrauma 12/2014; DOI:10.1089/neu.2014.3703 · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Significance: Regulation of cell adhesions during tissue repair is fundamentally important for cell migration, proliferation, and protein production. All cells interact with extracellular matrix proteins with cell surface integrin receptors that convey signals from the environment into the nucleus, regulating gene expression and cell behavior. Integrins also interact with a variety of other proteins, such as growth factors, their receptors, and proteolytic enzymes. Re-epithelialization and granulation tissue formation are crucially dependent on the temporospatial function of multiple integrins. This review explains how integrins function in wound repair. Recent Advances: Certain integrins can activate latent transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) that modulates wound inflammation and granulation tissue formation. Dysregulation of TGF-β1 function is associated with scarring and fibrotic disorders. Therefore, these integrins represent targets for therapeutic intervention in fibrosis. Critical Issues: Integrins have multifaceted functions and extensive crosstalk with other cell surface receptors and molecules. Moreover, in aberrant healing, integrins may assume different functions, further increasing the complexity of their functionality. Discovering and understanding the role that integrins play in wound healing provides an opportunity to identify the mechanisms for medical conditions, such as excessive scarring, chronic wounds, and even cancer. Future Directions: Integrin functions in acute and chronic wounds should be further addressed in models better mimicking human wounds. Application of any products in acute or chronic wounds will potentially alter integrin functions that need to be carefully considered in the design.
    12/2014; 3(12):762-783. DOI:10.1089/wound.2013.0436