Endothelial α5 and αv integrins cooperate in remodeling of the vasculature during development
ABSTRACT Integrin cell adhesion receptors and fibronectin, one of their extracellular matrix ligands, have been demonstrated to be important for angiogenesis using functional perturbation studies and complete knockout mouse models. Here, we report on the roles of the alpha5 and alphav integrins, which are the major endothelial fibronectin receptors, in developmental angiogenesis. We generated an integrin alpha5-floxed mouse line and ablated alpha5 integrin in endothelial cells. Unexpectedly, endothelial-specific knockout of integrin alpha5 has no obvious effect on developmental angiogenesis. We provide evidence for genetic interaction between mutations in integrin alpha5 and alphav and for overlapping functions and compensation between these integrins and perhaps others. Nonetheless, in embryos lacking both alpha5 and alphav integrins in their endothelial cells, initial vasculogenesis and angiogenesis proceed normally, at least up to E11.5, including the formation of apparently normal embryonic vasculature and development of the branchial arches. However, in the absence of endothelial alpha5 and alphav integrins, but not of either alone, there are extensive defects in remodeling of the great vessels and heart resulting in death at ~E14.5. We also found that fibronectin assembly is somewhat affected in integrin alpha5 knockout endothelial cells and markedly reduced in integrin alpha5/alphav double-knockout endothelial cell lines. Therefore, neither alpha5 nor alphav integrins are required in endothelial cells for initial vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, although they are required for remodeling of the heart and great vessels. These integrins on other cells, and/or other integrins on endothelial cells, might contribute to fibronectin assembly and vascular development.
- SourceAvailable from: Kirsten A Turlo
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- "Prior to the identification of integrins, early observations showed an alignment between fibronectin and the cytoskeleton predicting the existence of a molecule that linked the two (Hynes and Destree, 1978). Subsequent studies have served to confirm the relationship between integrins, assembly of fibronectin as well as collagen fibrils (Li et al., 2003; van der Flier et al., 2010; Wu et al., 1995). Our findings suggest that, in addition to fibronectin, β1 integrins contribute to the organization of several other matrix molecules. "
ABSTRACT: β1 integrin has been shown to contribute to vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation, adhesion and mechanosensation in vitro. Here we showed that deletion of β1 integrin at the onset of smooth muscle differentiation resulted in interrupted aortic arch, aneurysms and failure to assemble extracellular matrix proteins. These defects result in lethality prior to birth. Our data indicates that β1 integrin is not required for the acquisition, but it is essential for the maintenance of the smooth muscle cell phenotype, as levels of critical smooth muscle proteins are gradually reduced in mutant mice. Furthermore, while deposition of extracellular matrix was not affected, its structure was disrupted. Interestingly, defects in extracellular matrix and vascular wall assembly, were restricted to the aortic arch and its branches, compromising the brachiocephalic and carotid arteries and to the exclusion of the descending aorta. Additional analysis of β1 integrin in the pharyngeal arch smooth muscle progenitors was performed using wnt1Cre. Neural crest cells deleted for β1 integrin were able to migrate to the pharyngeal arches and associate with endothelial lined arteries; but exhibited vascular remodeling defects and early lethality. This work demonstrates that β1 integrin is dispensable for migration and initiation of the smooth muscle differentiation program, however, it is essential for remodeling of the pharyngeal arch arteries and for the assembly of the vessel wall of their derivatives. It further establishes a critical role of β1 integrin in the protection against aneurysms that is particularly confined to the ascending aorta and its branches.Developmental Biology 02/2012; 365(1):23-35. DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2012.01.027 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has long been thought that the same molecules guide both trunk neural crest cells and motor axons as these cell types grow and extend to their target regions in developing embryos. There are common territories that are navigated by these cell types: both cells grow through the rostral portion of the somitic sclerotomes and avoid the caudal half of the sclerotomes. However, these cell types seem to use different molecules to guide them to their target regions. In this review, I will talk about the common and distinct methods of migration taken by trunk neural crest cells and motor axons as they grow and populate their target regions through chick embryos at the level of the trunk.Cell adhesion & migration 10/2010; 4(4):631-4. DOI:10.4161/cam.4.4.13594 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Using Tln1(fl/fl);CreER mice, we show that tamoxifen-induced inactivation of the talin1 gene throughout the embryo produces an angiogenesis phenotype that is restricted to newly forming blood vessels. The phenotype has a rapid onset in early embryos, resulting in vessel defects by 48 h and death of the embryo within 72 h. Very similar vascular defects were obtained using a Tie2-Cre endothelial cell-specific Tln1 knockout, a phenotype that was rescued by expression of a Tln1 mini-gene in endothelial cells. We show that endothelial cells, unlike most other cell types, do not express talin2, which can compensate for loss of talin1, and demonstrate for the first time that endothelial cells in vivo lacking talin1 are unable to undergo the cell spreading and flattening required to form vessels.Developmental Biology 11/2010; 349(2):494-502. DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2010.11.010 · 3.64 Impact Factor