Depletion of Tumor-Associated Macrophages Enhances the Effect of Sorafenib in Metastatic Liver Cancer Models by Antimetastatic and Antiangiogenic Effects
ABSTRACT To investigate the role of macrophages in tumor progression under sorafenib treatment and to explore whether combination of drugs that deplete macrophages improved the antitumor effect of sorafenib.
Tumor growth, lung metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis were observed in HCCLM3-R and SMMC7721, two human hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft nude mouse models, when treated with sorafenib (30 mg/kg daily, n = 6 per group) or a vehicle as control. Macrophage infiltration was measured in the peripheral blood and in sorafenib-treated tumor by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry with F4/80 antibody and CD11b antibody. The effect of macrophage depletion on tumor angiogenesis and metastasis after sorafenib treatment, using two drug target macrophages, zoledronic acid (ZA) and clodrolip, was measured in the two models of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Although sorafenib significantly inhibited tumor growth and lung metastasis, it induced a significant increase in peripheral recruitment and intratumoral infiltration of F4/80- and CD11b-positive cells, which was accompanied with elevation of colony-stimulating factor-1, stromal-derived factor 1alpha, and vascular endothelial growth factor in the tumor and elevation of plasma colony-stimulating factor-1 and mouse vascular endothelial growth factor in peripheral blood, suggesting the role of macrophages in tumor progression under sorafenib treatment. Depletion of macrophages by clodrolip or ZA in combination with sorafenib significantly inhibited tumor progression, tumor angiogenesis, and lung metastasis compared with mice treated with sorafenib alone. ZA was more effective than clodrolip.
Macrophages may have an important role in tumor progression under sorafenib treatment. ZA is promising when combined with sorafenib to enhance its antitumor effect.
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Significant evidence has indicated that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a critical role in the proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis of a variety of human carcinomas. In this study, we investigated whether near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging using a macrophage mannose receptor (MMR; CD206)-targeting agent could be used to noninvasively visualize and quantify changes in TAMs in vivo. The CD206-targeting NIRF agent, Dye-anti-CD206, was prepared and characterized in vitro and in vivo. By using NIRF imaging, we were able to noninvasively image tumor-infiltrating macrophages in the 4T1 mouse breast cancer model. Importantly, longitudinal NIRF imaging revealed the depletion of macrophages in response to zoledronic acid (ZA) treatment. However, ZA alone did not lead to the inhibition of 4T1 tumor growth. We therefore combined anti-macrophage ZA therapy and tumor cytotoxic docetaxel (DTX) therapy in the mouse model. The results demonstrated that this combination strategy could significantly inhibit tumor growth as well as tumor metastasis to the lungs. Based on these findings, we concluded that CD206-targeted molecular imaging can sensitively detect the dynamic changes in tumor-infiltrating macrophages, and that the combination of macrophage depletion and cytotoxic therapy is a promising strategy for the effective treatment of solid tumors.Theranostics 01/2015; 5(6):597-608. DOI:10.7150/thno.11546 · 7.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dopamine (DA), a monoamine catecholamine neurotransmitter with antiangiogenic activity, stabilizes tumor vessels in colon, prostate and ovarian cancer, thus increases chemotherapeutic efficacy. Here, in the rat C6 glioma models, we investigated the vascular normalization effects of DA and its mechanisms of action. DA (25, 50 mg/kg) inhibited tumor growth, while a precursor of DA (levodopa) prolonged the survival time of rats bearing orthotopic C6 glioma. DA improved tumor perfusion, with significant effects from day 3, and a higher level at day 5 to 7. In addition, DA decreased microvessel density and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression in tumor tissues, while increasing the coverage of pericyte. Conversely, an antagonist of dopamine receptor 2 (DR2) (eticlopride) but not DR1 (butaclamol) abrogated DA-induced tumor regression and vascular normalization. Furthermore, DA improved the delivery and efficacy of temozolomide therapy. Importantly, DA increased representative M1 markers (iNOS, CXCL9, etc.), while decreasing M2 markers (CD206, arginase-1, etc.). Depletion of macrophages by clodronate or zoledronic acid attenuated the effects of DA. Notably, DA treatment induced a M2-to-M1 polarization in RAW264.7 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages, and enhanced the migration of pericyte-like cells (10T1/2), which was reversed by eticlopride or DR2-siRNA. Such changes were accompanied by the downregulation of VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling. In summary, DA induces growth inhibition and vascular normalization through reprograming M2-polarized macrophages. Thus, targeting the tumor microvasculature by DA represents a promising strategy for human glioma therapy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2015.03.021 · 3.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Oct4 and Nanog are key regulatory genes that maintain the pluripotency and self-renewal properties of embryonic stem cells. We previously reported that the two stemness markers were tightly associated with cancer progression and poor outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we demonstrate that coexpression of Oct4/Nanog modulates activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), an oncogenic transcription factor that is activated in many human malignancies including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as well as the expression of Snail, a key regulator implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor metastasis. Oct4 and Nanog were ectopic expressed in MHCC97-L cell lines via lentiviral gene transfection. The stemness characteristics including self-renewal, proliferation, chemoresistance, and tumorigenicity were assessed. The effect of coexpression of Oct4 and Nanog on epithelial-mesenchymal transition change, and the underlying molecular signaling was investigated. Ectopic coexpression of Oct4 and Nanog empowered MHCC97-L cells with cancer stem cell (CSC) properties, including self-renewal, extensive proliferation, drug resistance, and high tumorigenic capacity. Significantly, Oct4 and Nanog encouraged epithelial-mesenchymal transition change contributing to tumor migration, invasion/metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Following molecular mechanism investigation indicated Oct4/Nanog-regulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition change through Stat3-dependent Snail activation. Moreover, silencing Stat3 abrogates Oct4/Nanog-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) change and invasion/metastasis in HCC. We delineate Oct4 and Nanog initiate stem cell characteristics in hepatocellular carcinoma and promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition through activation of Stat3/Snail signaling. Our findings propose Stat3/Snail pathway as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of progression and metastasis of HCC with CSC-like signatures and epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype.Journal of Hematology & Oncology 12/2015; 8(1). DOI:10.1186/s13045-015-0119-3 · 4.93 Impact Factor