Depletion of Tumor-Associated Macrophages Enhances the Effect of Sorafenib in Metastatic Liver Cancer Models by Antimetastatic and Antiangiogenic Effects
ABSTRACT To investigate the role of macrophages in tumor progression under sorafenib treatment and to explore whether combination of drugs that deplete macrophages improved the antitumor effect of sorafenib.
Tumor growth, lung metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis were observed in HCCLM3-R and SMMC7721, two human hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft nude mouse models, when treated with sorafenib (30 mg/kg daily, n = 6 per group) or a vehicle as control. Macrophage infiltration was measured in the peripheral blood and in sorafenib-treated tumor by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry with F4/80 antibody and CD11b antibody. The effect of macrophage depletion on tumor angiogenesis and metastasis after sorafenib treatment, using two drug target macrophages, zoledronic acid (ZA) and clodrolip, was measured in the two models of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Although sorafenib significantly inhibited tumor growth and lung metastasis, it induced a significant increase in peripheral recruitment and intratumoral infiltration of F4/80- and CD11b-positive cells, which was accompanied with elevation of colony-stimulating factor-1, stromal-derived factor 1alpha, and vascular endothelial growth factor in the tumor and elevation of plasma colony-stimulating factor-1 and mouse vascular endothelial growth factor in peripheral blood, suggesting the role of macrophages in tumor progression under sorafenib treatment. Depletion of macrophages by clodrolip or ZA in combination with sorafenib significantly inhibited tumor progression, tumor angiogenesis, and lung metastasis compared with mice treated with sorafenib alone. ZA was more effective than clodrolip.
Macrophages may have an important role in tumor progression under sorafenib treatment. ZA is promising when combined with sorafenib to enhance its antitumor effect.
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ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly aggressive malignancy. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is a new technology destroying tumor cells with a non-thermal high voltage electric field using ultra-short pulses. The study's aim was to evaluate the ablation efficacy of nsPEFs with human HCC cell lines and a highly metastatic potential HCC xenograft model on BALB/c nude mice. The in vivo study showed nsPEFs induced HCC cell death in a dose dependent manner. On the high metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HCCLM3) xenograft mice model, tumor growth was inhibited significantly in nsPEF-treated- groups (single dose and multi-fractionated dose). Besides a local effect, the nsPEF treatment reduced pulmonary metastases. The nsPEFs also enhanced HCC cell phagocytosis by human macrophage cell (THP1) in vitro. The nsPEF is efficient in controlling HCC progression and reducing its metastasis. NsPEF treatment may elicit a host immune response against tumor cells. This study suggests nsPEF therapy could be used as a potential locoregional therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.Cancer letters 01/2014; 346(2). DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2014.01.009 · 5.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Over the past decade, growing evidence indicates that the tumor microenvironment (TME) contributes with genomic/epigenomic aberrations of malignant cells to enhance cancer cells survival, invasion, and dissemination. Many factors, produced or de novo synthesized by immune, stromal, or malignant cells, acting in a paracrine and autocrine fashion, remodel TME and the adaptive immune response culminating in metastasis. Taking into account the recent accomplishments in the field of immune oncology and using metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) as a model, we propose that the evasion of the immune surveillance and metastatic spread can be achieved through a number of mechanisms that include (a) intrinsic plasticity and adaptability of immune and malignant cells to paracrine and autocrine stimuli or genotoxic stresses; (b) alteration of positional schemes of myeloid-lineage cells, produced by factors controlling the balance between tumour-suppressing and tumour-promoting activities; (c) acquisition by cancer cells of aberrant immune-phenotypic traits (NT5E/CD73, CD68, and CD163) that enhance the interactions among TME components through the production of immune-suppressive mediators. These properties may represent the driving force of metastatic progression and thus clinically exploitable for cancer prevention and therapy. In this review we summarize results and suggest new hypotheses that favour the growing impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells on tumour progression, metastasis, and therapy resistance.Journal of Immunology Research 01/2014; 2014:686879. DOI:10.1155/2014/686879 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Macrophage function is not restricted to the innate and adaptive immune responses, but also includes host defence, wound healing, angiogenesis and homeostatic processes. Within the spectrum of macrophage activation there are two extremes: M1 classically activated macrophages which have a pro-inflammatory phenotype, and M2 alternatively activated macrophages which are pro-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory. An important property of macrophages is their plasticity to switch from one phenotype to the other and they can be defined in their polarisation state at any point between the two extremes. In order to determine what stage of activation macrophages are in, it is essential to profile various phenotypic markers for their identification. This review describes the angiogenic role for myeloid cells: circulating monocytes, Tie-2 expressing monocytes (TEMs), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), tumour associated macrophages (TAMs), and neutrophils. Each cell type is discussed by phenotype, roles within angiogenesis and possible targets as a cell therapy. In addition, we also refer to our own research on myeloid angiogenic cells (MACs), outlining their ability to induce angiogenesis and their similarities to alternatively activated M2 macrophages. MACs significantly contribute to vascular repair through paracrine mechanisms as they lack the capacity to differentiate into endothelial cells. Since MACs also retain plasticity, phenotypic changes can occur according to disease states and the surrounding microenvironment. This pro-angiogenic potential of MACs could be harnessed as a novel cellular therapy for the treatment of ischaemic diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy, hind limb ischaemia and myocardial infarction; however, caution needs to be taken when MACs are delivered into an inflammatory milieu.Immunobiology 07/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.imbio.2013.06.010 · 3.18 Impact Factor