Periprosthetic Joint Infection The Economic Impact of Methicillin-Resistant Infections

Rothman Institute of Orthopedics at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.
The Journal of arthroplasty (Impact Factor: 2.67). 09/2010; 25(6 Suppl):103-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.arth.2010.04.011
Source: PubMed


The orthopedic community has begun to witness a worrisome rise in the incidence of periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) caused by resistant organisms. Besides other challenges associated with treating these infections, it appears that these infections may pose a higher cost compared to infections caused by sensitive organisms. Significantly higher cost of care for treatment of infections due to methicillin-resistant organisms were seen at a mean of $107,264 per case compared to $68,053 for treating PJI caused by sensitive strains (P < .0001). More effective strategies for preventing the spread of infections caused by resistant organisms need to be implemented to ease the social and economic strains facing the orthopedic community due to resistant organisms.

Download full-text


Available from: Javad Parvizi, Jan 24, 2014
81 Reads
  • Source
    • "The current standard of care for chronic PJI remains a 2-staged exchange arthroplasty, which often leaves the patient biomechanically deficient until the infection clears. However, persistent or recurrent infections continue to be problematic especially in the face of difficult to treat organisms, and may occur in as many as 25% of revision total joint procedures [2]. Persistent PJI cases have serious consequences and may lead to joint fusion or limb amputation as salvage procedures. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Effective treatment options are often limited for implant-associated orthopedic infections. In this study we evaluated the antimicrobial effects of applying cathodic voltage-controlled electrical stimulation (CVCES) of -1.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) to commercially pure titanium (cpTi) substrates with preformed biofilm-like structures of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The in vitro studies showed that as compared to the open circuit potential (OCP) conditions, CVCES of -1.8 V for 1 h significantly reduced the colony-forming units (CFU) of MRSA enumerated from the cpTi by 97% (1.89 × 106 vs 6.45 × 104 CFU/ml) and from the surrounding solution by 92% (6.63 × 105 vs. 5.15 × 104 CFU/ml). The in vivo studies, utilizing a rodent periprosthetic infection model, showed that as compared to the OCP conditions, CVCES at -1.8 V for 1 h significantly reduced MRSA CFUs in the bone tissue by 87% (1.15 × 105 vs. 1.48 × 104 CFU/ml) and reduced CFU on the cpTi implant by 98% (5.48 × 104 vs 1.16 × 103 CFU/ml). The stimulation was not associated with histological changes in the host tissue surrounding the implant. As compared to the OCP conditions, the -1.8 V stimulation significantly increased the interfacial capacitance (18.93 vs. 98.25 μF/cm(2)) and decreased polarization resistance (868,250 vs. 108 Ω-cm(2)) of the cpTi. The antimicrobial effects are thought to be associated with these voltage-dependent electrochemical surface properties of the cpTi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Biomaterials 02/2015; 41C:97-105. DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.11.013 · 8.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Deep infections are devastating complications of TKA often treated with component explantation, intravenous antibiotics, and antibiotic-impregnated cement spacers. Historically, the spacers have been static, which may limit patients' ROM and ability to walk. Several recent reports describe dynamic spacers, which may allow for improved ROM and make later reimplantation easier. However, because of several dynamic spacer problems noted at our institution, we wanted to assess their associated failures, reinfection rates, and functionality. We therefore asked whether there were differences between static and dynamic spacers in (1) reinfection rates, (2) complications directly related to the spacer, and (3) final patient functionality as measured by Knee Society objective scores and ROM. We retrospectively identified 111 patients (115 knees) with 34 dynamic spacers (30%) and 81 static spacers (70%). Reinfection rates, complications requiring additional surgery, and final Knee Society scores and ROM were collected for all patients. Reinfection rates were comparable between groups. In the dynamic spacer cohort, there were four complications; however, these could all be explained by surgical technical errors or patient weightbearing compliance. All patients with failed results eventually underwent successful two-stage exchange arthroplasty. Final Knee Society scores and ROM were also similar between groups. Reinfection rates, Knee Society scores, and ROM were comparable between the static and dynamic spacer groups. Meticulous surgical technique and proper patient selection should be used to avoid any complications with any spacers.
    Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 09/2011; 470(1):220-7. DOI:10.1007/s11999-011-2095-4 · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is unclear whether simultaneous-bilateral total knee arthroplasty is as safe as staged-bilateral arthroplasty is. We are aware of no randomized trials comparing the safety of these surgical strategies. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively compare these two strategies, with use of an intention-to-treat approach for the staged-bilateral arthroplasty cohort. We used linked hospital discharge data to compare the safety of simultaneous-bilateral and staged-bilateral knee arthroplasty procedures performed in California between 1997 and 2007. Estimates were generated to take into account patients who had planned to undergo staged-bilateral arthroplasty but never underwent the second procedure because of death, a major complication, or elective withdrawal. Hierarchical logistic regression modeling was used to adjust the comparisons for patient and hospital characteristics. The principal outcomes of interest were death, a major complication involving the cardiovascular system, and a periprosthetic knee infection or mechanical malfunction requiring revision surgery. Records were available for 11,445 simultaneous-bilateral arthroplasty procedures and 23,715 staged-bilateral procedures. On the basis of an intermediate estimate of the number of complications that occurred after the first procedure in a staged-bilateral arthroplasty, patients who underwent simultaneous-bilateral arthroplasty had a significantly higher adjusted odds ratio (OR) of myocardial infarction (OR = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2 to 2.2) and of pulmonary embolism (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1 to 1.8), similar odds of death (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.9 to 1.9) and of ischemic stroke (OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6 to 1.6), and significantly lower odds of major joint infection (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.5 to 0.7) and of major mechanical malfunction (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.6 to 0.9) compared with patients who planned to undergo staged-bilateral arthroplasty. The unadjusted thirty-day incidence of death or a coronary event was 3.2 events per thousand patients higher after simultaneous-bilateral arthroplasty than after staged-bilateral arthroplasty, but the one-year incidence of major joint infection or major mechanical malfunction was 10.5 events per thousand lower after simultaneous-bilateral arthroplasty. Simultaneous-bilateral total knee arthroplasty was associated with a clinically important reduction in the incidence of periprosthetic joint infection and malfunction within one year after arthroplasty, but it was associated with a moderately higher risk of an adverse cardiovascular outcome within thirty days. If patients who are at higher risk for cardiovascular complications can be identified, simultaneous-bilateral knee arthroplasty may be the preferred surgical strategy for the remaining lower-risk patients.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 12/2011; 93(23):2203-13. DOI:10.2106/JBJS.J.01350 · 5.28 Impact Factor
Show more