Cadmium effects on 24h changes in glutamate, aspartate, glutamine, GABA and taurine content of rat striatum.
ABSTRACT This work evaluates the possible changes in 24 h variations of striatal aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine content after oral cadmium treatment. Male rats were submitted to cadmium exposure at two doses (25 and 50 mg/L of cadmium chloride (CdCl(2))) in the drinking water for 30 days. Control rats received cadmium-free water. After the treatment, rats were killed at six different time intervals throughout a 24 h cycle. Differential effects of cadmium on 24 h amino acid fluctuations were observed. Metal exposure modified the daily pattern of the amino acids concentration found in control animals, except for GABA and taurine with the lowest dose used. Exposure to 25 mg/L of CdCl(2) decreased mean content of aspartate, as well as GABA concentration. These results suggest that cadmium exposure affects 24 h changes of the studied amino acids concentration in the striatum, and those changes may be related to alterations in striatal function.
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ABSTRACT: The striatum, the largest input nucleus of the basal ganglia, receives massive inputs from the neocortex and thalamus, and gives rise to the direct, indirect and striosomal pathways of the basal ganglia. Here, the view is developed that the striatum is a major site for adaptive plasticity in cortico-basal ganglia circuits, affecting in the normal state a broad range of behaviours. This plasticity can become a major source of maladaptive responses in disease states affecting the basal ganglia.Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 08/2004; 10(5):293-6. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Four groups of male rats were given the following oral treatment: control group (n = 20) deionized drinking water, Mn group (n = 20) deionized drinking water containing 56 ppm Mn2+ (1 mmol/l), Cd group (n = 10) deionized drinking water containing 112 ppm Cd2+ (1 mmol/l) and Cd+Mn group (n = 10) deinonized drinking water containing 112 ppm Cd2+ and 56 ppm Mn2+. Half of each group was sacrificed after 4 weeks and the other half after 8 weeks of treatment. At each time interval, the mean levels of Mn in blood, in urine and in the various tissus did not differ between the control and Mn groups. Furthermore, comparable Mn levels were found after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Microscopical examination of the brain failed to reveal any overt morphological alteration in the Mn group. With respect to the control group, the Cd and Cd + Mn groups exhibited increased levels of Cd in blood, urine, liver, whole kidney, kidney cortex and in brain (cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia), but the Cd + Mn groups showed invariably lower levels than the Cd group after 4 weeks as well as after 8 weeks. These results suggest that the rate of gastrointestinal absorption of Cd is decreased by supplementation of the drinking water with a ‘non-toxic’ dose of Mn2+.Journal of Applied Toxicology 01/2006; 6(5):313 - 316. · 2.60 Impact Factor