Cadmium effects on 24h changes in glutamate, aspartate, glutamine, GABA and taurine content of rat striatum.

Laboratorio de Toxicología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Vigo, Las Lagunas, Orense, Spain.
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology (Impact Factor: 2.49). 07/2010; 24(3):212-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2010.01.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This work evaluates the possible changes in 24 h variations of striatal aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine content after oral cadmium treatment. Male rats were submitted to cadmium exposure at two doses (25 and 50 mg/L of cadmium chloride (CdCl(2))) in the drinking water for 30 days. Control rats received cadmium-free water. After the treatment, rats were killed at six different time intervals throughout a 24 h cycle. Differential effects of cadmium on 24 h amino acid fluctuations were observed. Metal exposure modified the daily pattern of the amino acids concentration found in control animals, except for GABA and taurine with the lowest dose used. Exposure to 25 mg/L of CdCl(2) decreased mean content of aspartate, as well as GABA concentration. These results suggest that cadmium exposure affects 24 h changes of the studied amino acids concentration in the striatum, and those changes may be related to alterations in striatal function.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of cadmium on the central nervous system are still relatively poorly understood and its role in neurodegenerative diseases has been debated. In our research, cultured explants from 25 human foetal spinal cords (10-11 weeks gestational age) were incubated with 10 and 100 μM cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) for 24 h. After treatment, an immunohistochemical study [for Sglial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)], a Western blot analysis (for GFAP, β-Tubulin III, nerve growth factor receptor, Caspase 8 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase), and a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay (for detection of apoptotic bodies) were performed. The treatment with CdCl(2) induced a significant and dose-dependent change in the ratio motor neurons/glial cells in the ventral horns of human foetal spinal cord. The decrease of the choline acetyltransferase-positive cells (motor neurons) and the reduction of β Tubulin III indicate that CdCl(2) specifically affects motor neurons of the ventral horns. While the number of motor neurons decreased for the activation of apoptotic pathways (as shown by the increased expression of Caspase 8, nerve growth factor receptor, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase), glial cells, both in the subependymal zone and in the gray matter of the ventral horns, increased (as shown by the increase of GFAP expression). These results provide the evidence that during human spinal cord development, CdCl(2) may affect the fate of neural and glial cells thus, being potentially involved in the etiopathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.
    Biology of Metals 07/2011; 25(1):63-74. DOI:10.1007/s10534-011-9483-9 · 2.69 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A Box-Bhenken design with four variables (shrimp shell concentration (SSC), glucose concentration, incubation time and inoculum size) and three levels was used for the determination of the deproteinization and demineralization efficiencies in fermented shrimp shells by Pseudomonas aeruginosa A2. The fermentation variables were selected in accordance with Plackett-Burman design. Maximum demineralization of 96%, with about 89% of protein removal occurs under the following conditions: SSC 50 g/l, glucose 50 g/l, 5 days and inoculum of 0.05 OD. This environment friendly method (biological treatment) can be considered as an effective pretreatment to produce a high-quality chitin.
    International journal of biological macromolecules 02/2011; 48(4):596-602. DOI:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2011.01.024 · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cadmium (Cd), tungsten (W), tellurium (Te), beryllium (Be), and lead (Pb), are non-essential metals pervasive in the human environment. Studies on athletes during training periods compared to non-training control subjects, indicate increased loss of minerals through sweat and urine. The aim of this study was to compare the level of these trace elements, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in urine samples, between athletes and age-matched sedentary subjects living in the same geographical area, although anthropometric and cardiovascular measurements showed that athletes have significantly (P ≤ 0.001) lower BMI, body fat and heart rate, whereas the muscle and bone percentage was significantly (P ≤ 0.001) higher than in sedentary subjects. The validity of the methodology was checked by the biological certified reference material. Trace element analysis concentrations, expressed in μg/mg creatinine, of five toxic elements in urine from athletes (n = 21) versus sedentary subjects, (n = 26) were as follows: Cd (0.123 ± 0.075 vs. 0.069 ± 0.041, P ≤ 0.05); W (0.082 ± 0.053 vs. < limit of detection); Te (0.244 ± 0.193 vs. 0.066 ± 0.045, P ≤ 0.001), Be (0.536 ± 0.244 vs. 0.066 ± 0.035, P ≤ 0.001); Pb (0.938 ± 0.664 vs. 2.162 ± 1.444 P ≤ 0.001). With the exception of Pb, urine toxic metal concentrations from athletes were higher than from sedentary subjects. This fact suggests that physical activity counteracts, at least in part, the cumulative effect of toxic environment by increasing the urine excretion of toxic metals in trained people.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 12/2011; 112(8):3027-31. DOI:10.1007/s00421-011-2276-6 · 2.30 Impact Factor