Clinical correlations of grey matter reductions in the caudate nucleus of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Departamento de Investigación del Centro Estatal de Salud Mental, Querétaro, México.
Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience: JPN (Impact Factor: 5.86). 07/2010; 35(4):238-46.
Source: PubMed


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have shown decreased caudate volumes in individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, most of these studies have been carried out in male children. Very little research has been done in adults, and the results obtained in children are difficult to extrapolate to adults. We sought to compare the volume of the caudate of adults with ADHD with that of healthy controls; we also compared these volumes between men and women.
We performed an MRI scan on 20 adults with ADHD (10 men and 10 women) aged 25-35 years and 20 healthy controls matched by age and sex. We used voxel-based morphometry with the DARTEL algorithm for image analyses. We used the specifically designed Friederichsen, Almeida, Serrano, Cortes Test (FASCT) to measure the severity of ADHD; both the self-reported (FASCT-SR) and the observer (FASCT-O) versions were used.
The statistical parametric map showed a smaller region with low grey matter volume and a smaller concentration of grey matter in this region of the right caudate in ADHD patients than in health controls, both in the entire sample and within each sex. There was a significant correlation between the volume of this region of the caudate with the number of DSM IV-TR criteria, as well as with the total scores and most of the factors of the FASCT-SR and FASCT-O scales. A separate correlation analysis by sex gave similar results. Limitations: The study design was cross-sectional.
The region of the right caudate with low grey matter volume was smaller in adults with ADHD in both sexes and was correlated with ADHD severity.

9 Reads
  • Source
    • "A series of reports by Almeida Montes and colleagues has shown that adults with ADHD have reduced cortical thickness in the right superior frontal cortex (Almeida Montes et al. 2010) and right frontoparietal cortex (Almeida Montes et al. 2012), and that the severity of their ADHD symptoms correlates negatively with thickness in these regions. These reports also reveal reduced grey matter volume in the caudate nucleus (Almeida Montes et al. 2010) and, specifically in women, reduced grey matter density in the right cerebellum (Almeida Montes et al. 2011) in these individuals. Other studies have found decreased volume and/or cortical thickness in the orbitofrontal, dorsolateral, and anterior and posterior cingulate regions (Cubillo and Rubia 2010; Makris et al. 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Response inhibition deficits are widely believed to be at the core of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Several studies have examined neural architectural correlates of ADHD, but research directly examining structural correlates of response inhibition is lacking. Here we examine the relationship between response inhibition as measured by a Go/No Go task, and cortical surface area and thickness of the caudal inferior frontal gyrus (cIFG), a region implicated in functional imaging studies of response inhibition, in a sample of 114 young adults with and without ADHD diagnosed initially during childhood. We used multiple linear regression models to test the hypothesis that Go/No Go performance would be associated with cIFG surface area or thickness. Results showed that poorer Go/No Go performance was associated with thicker cIFG cortex, and this effect was not mediated by ADHD status or history of substance use. However, independent of Go/No Go performance, persistence of ADHD symptoms and more frequent cannabis use were associated with thinner cIFG. Go/No Go performance was not associated with cortical surface area. The association between poor inhibitory functioning and thicker cIFG suggests that maturation of this region may differ in low performing participants. An independent association of persistent ADHD symptoms and frequent cannabis use with thinner cIFG cortex suggests that distinct neural mechanisms within this region may play a role in inhibitory function, broader ADHD symptomatology, and cannabis use. These results contribute to Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) by revealing novel associations between neural architectural phenotypes and basic neurobehavioral processes measured dimensionally.
    Brain Imaging and Behavior 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11682-015-9453-x · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "s have speculated this normalization of caudate volume may be associated with age - related decreases in hyperactivity / impul - sivity in ADHD ( Castellanos et al . , 2002 ; Nakao , Radua , Rubia , & Mataix - Cols , 2011 ) ; however , rela - tively modest ( yet significant ) reductions in caudate volume may still be observed in adults with ADHD ( Montes et al . , 2010 ; Proal et al . , 2011 ; Seidman et al . , 2011 ) . In addition , accompanying smaller basal ganglia volumes is reduced activation of the basal ganglia in individuals with ADHD across a wide range of tasks ( Cubillo , Halari , Smith , Taylor , & Rubia , 2012 ; Hart , Radua , Nakao , Mataix - Cols , & Rubia , 2013 ; Scheres , Milham , Kn"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Extensive evidence indicates that mammalian memory is organized into multiple brains systems, including a 'cognitive' memory system that depends on the hippocampus and a stimulus-response 'habit' memory system that depends on the dorsolateral striatum. Dorsal striatal-dependent habit memory may in part influence the development and expression of some human psychopathologies, particularly those characterized by strong habit-like behavioral features. The present review considers this hypothesis as it pertains to psychopathologies that typically emerge during childhood and adolescence. These disorders include Tourette syndrome, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, and autism spectrum disorders. Human and nonhuman animal research shows that the typical development of memory systems comprises the early maturation of striatal-dependent habit memory and the relatively late maturation of hippocampal-dependent cognitive memory. We speculate that the differing rates of development of these memory systems may in part contribute to the early emergence of habit-like symptoms in childhood and adolescence. In addition, abnormalities in hippocampal and striatal brain regions have been observed consistently in youth with these disorders, suggesting that the aberrant development of memory systems may also contribute to the emergence of habit-like symptoms as core pathological features of these illnesses. Considering these disorders within the context of multiple memory systems may help elucidate the pathogenesis of habit-like symptoms in childhood and adolescence, and lead to novel treatments that lessen the habit-like behavioral features of these disorders.
    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 11/2013; 55(6). DOI:10.1111/jcpp.12169 · 6.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Imaging studies found abnormalities with respect to structure and function in anterior cingulate (Dickstein, 2006; Bush, 2011) and ventral prefrontal areas (Hesslinger et al. 2002; Dickstein, 2006), the striatum (Seidman et al. 2005; Scheres et al. 2007; Almeida Montes et al. 2010), amygdala and hippocampus (Plessen et al. 2006). Konrad et al. (2006) found a methylphenidate effect on insula activation in ADHD children. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Emotional dysregulation is becoming increasingly recognized as an important feature of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, two experiments were conducted investigating the neural response to either verbally instructed fear (IF) or uninstructed (classically conditioned) fear (UF) using the skin conductance response (SCR) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Method: In the conditioning phase of the UF experiment (17 ADHD and 17 healthy controls), subjects experienced an unconditioned stimulus (UCS, unpleasant electrodermal stimulation) paired with a former neutral conditioned stimulus (CS+), whereas a control stimulus (CS-) was never paired with the UCS. In the subsequent test phase, only the CS+ and the CS- were presented. In the IF experiment (13 ADHD and 17 healthy controls), subjects were only told that an independently experienced UCS might occur together with the CS+ but not the CS- during testing. No UCS was presented. Results: Groups did not detectably differ in SCR or neural responses to UF. In IF, ADHD patients showed a trend-line decreased SCR and significantly decreased activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), a region prominently involved in fear responding, to the CS+. This was accompanied by higher amygdala activation to the CS-. Conclusions: During IF, ADHD patients showed deficits in regions centrally involved in fear learning and expression in terms of diminished CS+-related dACC and increased CS--related amygdala signals. This suggests an impaired processing of verbally transmitted aversive information, which is central for conveying fear information in social contexts. This result extends the growing literature on emotional alterations in ADHD.
    Psychological Medicine 03/2013; 44(1):1-14. DOI:10.1017/S0033291713000469 · 5.94 Impact Factor
Show more


9 Reads
Available from