Functional Mapping with Simultaneous MEG and EEG.

Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, MA, USA.
Journal of Visualized Experiments 01/2010; DOI: 10.3791/1668
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We use magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) to locate and determine the temporal evolution in brain areas involved in the processing of simple sensory stimuli. We will use somatosensory stimuli to locate the hand somatosensory areas, auditory stimuli to locate the auditory cortices, visual stimuli in four quadrants of the visual field to locate the early visual areas. These type of experiments are used for functional mapping in epileptic and brain tumor patients to locate eloquent cortices. In basic neuroscience similar experimental protocols are used to study the orchestration of cortical activity. The acquisition protocol includes quality assurance procedures, subject preparation for the combined MEG/EEG study, and acquisition of evoked-response data with somatosensory, auditory, and visual stimuli. We also demonstrate analysis of the data using the equivalent current dipole model and cortically-constrained minimum-norm estimates. Anatomical MRI data are employed in the analysis for visualization and for deriving boundaries of tissue boundaries for forward modeling and cortical location and orientation constraints for the minimum-norm estimates.

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    ABSTRACT: Magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides a direct, non-invasive view of neural activity with millisecond temporal precision. Recent developments in MEG analysis allow for improved source localization and mapping of connectivity between brain regions, expanding the possibilities for using MEG as a diagnostic tool. In this paper, we first describe inverse imaging methods (e.g., minimum-norm estimation) and functional connectivity measures, and how they can provide insights into cortical processing. We then offer a perspective on how these techniques could be used to understand and evaluate auditory pathologies that often manifest during development. Here we focus specifically on how MEG inverse imaging, by providing anatomically based interpretation of neural activity, may allow us to test which aspects of cortical processing play a role in (central) auditory processing disorder [(C)APD]. Appropriately combining auditory paradigms with MEG analysis could eventually prove useful for a hypothesis-driven understanding and diagnosis of (C)APD or other disorders, as well as the evaluation of the effectiveness of intervention strategies.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 03/2014; 8:151. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00151 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Simultaneous magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) analysis is known generally to yield better localization performance than a single modality only. For simultaneous analysis, MEG and EEG data should be combined to maximize synergistic effects. Recently, beamformer for simultaneous MEG/EEG analysis was proposed to localize both radial and tangential components well, while single modality analyses could not detect them, or had relatively higher location bias. In practice, most interesting brain sources are likely to be activated coherently; however, conventional beamformer may not work properly for such coherent sources. To overcome this difficulty, a linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) beamformer may be used with a source suppression strategy. In this work, simultaneous MEG/EEG LCMV beamformer using source suppression was formulated firstly to investigate its capability over various suppression strategies. The localization performance of our proposed approach was examined mainly for coherent sources and compared thoroughly with the conventional simultaneous and single modality approaches, over various suppression strategies. For this purpose, we used numerous simulated data, as well as empirical auditory stimulation data. In addition, some strategic issues of simultaneous MEG/EEG analysis were discussed. Overall, we found that our simultaneous MEG/EEG LCMV beamformer using a source suppression strategy is greatly beneficial in localizing coherent sources.
    Medical & Biological Engineering 06/2013; DOI:10.1007/s11517-013-1092-z · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Frequency tagging of sensory inputs (presenting stimuli that fluctuate periodically at rates to which the cortex can phase lock) has been used to study attentional modulation of neural responses to inputs in different sensory modalities. For visual inputs, the visual steady-state response (VSSR) at the frequency modulating an attended object is enhanced, while the VSSR to a distracting object is suppressed. In contrast, the effect of attention on the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) is inconsistent across studies. However, most auditory studies analyzed results at the sensor level or used only a small number of equivalent current dipoles to fit cortical responses. In addition, most studies of auditory spatial attention used dichotic stimuli (independent signals at the ears) rather than more natural, binaural stimuli. Here, we asked whether these methodological choices help explain discrepant results. Listeners attended to one of two competing speech streams, one simulated from the left and one from the right, that were modulated at different frequencies. Using distributed source modeling of magnetoencephalography results, we estimate how spatially directed attention modulates the ASSR in neural regions across the whole brain. Attention enhances the ASSR power at the frequency of the attended stream in contralateral auditory cortex. The attended-stream modulation frequency also drives phase-locked responses in the left (but not right) precentral sulcus (lPCS), a region implicated in control of eye gaze and visual spatial attention. Importantly, this region shows no phase locking to the distracting stream. Results suggest that the lPCS in engaged in an attention-specific manner. Modeling results that take account of the geometry and phases of the cortical sources phase locked to the two streams (including hemispheric asymmetry of lPCS activity) help to explain why past ASSR studies of auditory spatial attention yield seemingly contradictory results.
    Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience 02/2014; 8:6. DOI:10.3389/fnint.2014.00006


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