The natural history of the normal first stage of labor
Available from: Richard M Smiley
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ABSTRACT: β2-Adrenergic receptor (β2AR) activity influences labor. Its genotype affects the incidence of preterm delivery. We determined the effect of β2AR genotype on term labor progress and maternal pain.
We prospectively enrolled 150 nulliparous parturients in the third trimester and obtained sensory thresholds, demographic information, and DNA. Cervical dilation, pain scores, and labor management data were extracted with associated times. The association of genetic and demographic factors with labor was tested using mixed effects models.
Parturients who express Gln at the 27 position of the β2AR had slower labor (P < 0.03). They progressed from 1-10 cm dilation in approximately 21 h compared with 14 h among other patients. Asian ethnicity, previously associated with slower labor, is highly associated with this polymorphism (P < 0.0001). Heavier and black patients had slower latent labor (P < 0.01, 0.01). Neuraxial analgesia was associated with slower labor progress (P < 0.0001). It could take up to 36 h for parturients who were black and/or more than median weight (165 lb) to transition from 1 cm cervical dilation to active labor. However, after this active phase began, labor rates among these patients were similar to that of other parturients.
We detected a strong association between β2AR genotype and slower labor. Asian ethnicity may be a proxy for β2AR genotype. Black women and those of higher than average weight have slower latent labor. These results confirm many of the associations found when this mathematical model was applied to a large retrospective cohort, further validating this approach to description and analysis of labor progress.
Anesthesiology 03/2011; 114(4):927-39. DOI:10.1097/ALN.0b013e318211004e · 5.88 Impact Factor
Available from: europepmc.org
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ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to examine differences in labor patterns in a modern cohort compared with the 1960s in the United States.
Data from pregnancies at term, in spontaneous labor, with cephalic, singleton fetuses were compared between the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP, n = 39,491 delivering 1959-1966) and the Consortium on Safe Labor (CSL; n = 98,359 delivering 2002-2008).
Compared with the CPP, women in the CSL were older (26.8 ± 6.0 vs 24.1 ± 6.0 years), heavier (body mass index 29.9 ± 5.0 vs 26.3 ± 4.1 kg/m(2)), had higher epidural (55% vs 4%) and oxytocin use (31% vs 12%), and cesarean delivery (12% vs 3%). First stage of labor in the CSL was longer by a median of 2.6 hours in nulliparas and 2.0 hours in multiparas, even after adjusting for maternal and pregnancy characteristics, suggesting that the prolonged labor is mostly due to changes in practice patterns.
Labor is longer in the modern obstetrical cohort. The benefit of extensive interventions needs further evaluation.
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 05/2012; 206(5):419.e1-9. DOI:10.1016/j.ajog.2012.03.003 · 4.70 Impact Factor
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