Exercise pulmonary hypertension in asymptomatic degenerative mitral regurgitation.
ABSTRACT Current guidelines recommend mitral valve surgery for asymptomatic patients with severe degenerative mitral regurgitation and preserved left ventricular systolic function when exercise pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is present. However, the determinants of exercise PHT have not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to identify the echocardiographic predictors of exercise PHT and the impact on symptoms.
Comprehensive resting and exercise transthoracic echocardiography was performed in 78 consecutive patients (age, 61+/-13 years; 56% men) with at least moderate degenerative mitral regurgitation (effective regurgitant orifice area =43+/-20 mm(2); regurgitant volume =71+/-27 mL). Exercise PHT was defined as a systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (SPAP) >60 mm Hg. Exercise PHT was present in 46% patients. In multivariable analysis, exercise effective regurgitant orifice was an independent determinant of exercise SPAP (P<0.0001) and exercise PHT (P=0.002). Resting PHT and exercise PHT were associated with markedly reduced 2-year symptom-free survival (36+/-14% versus 59+/-7%, P=0.04; 35+/-8% versus 75+/-7%, P<0.0001). After adjustment, although the impact of resting PHT was no longer significant, exercise PHT was identified as an independent predictor of the occurrence of symptoms (hazard ratio=3.4; P=0.002). Receiver-operating characteristics curves revealed that exercise PHT (SPAP >56 mm Hg) was more accurate than resting PHT (SPAP >36 mm Hg) in predicting the occurrence of symptoms during follow-up (P=0.032).
Exercise PHT is frequent in patients with asymptomatic degenerative mitral regurgitation. Exercise mitral regurgitation severity is a strong independent predictor of both exercise SPAP and exercise PHT. Exercise PHT is associated with markedly low 2-year symptom-free survival, emphasizing the use of exercise echocardiography. An exercise SPAP >56 mm Hg accurately predicts the occurrence of symptoms.
Article: Prognostic importance of brain natriuretic peptide and left ventricular longitudinal function in asymptomatic degenerative mitral regurgitation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To identify the determinants and the impact on outcome of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in asymptomatic patients with degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR). Comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography including two-dimensional speckle tracking quantification was performed in 135 consecutive asymptomatic patients (60±14 years, 56% men) with moderate to severe degenerative MR and preserved left ventricular (LV) function. Blood samples were collected at the time of the echocardiography and plasma BNP levels were measured. BNP level and cardiac events. BNP was correlated with age, indexed LV end-systolic diameter, indexed left atrium (LA) volume, estimated LV filling pressure with E/Ea ratio, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure and global longitudinal strain (GLS). In multiple regression analysis, indexed LA volume (p=0.008), mitral deceleration time (p=0.003) and GLS (p<0.0001) were independently associated with BNP. During follow-up (mean=23±19 months), 54 events occurred resulting in 4-year event-free survival of 50±6%. There was a graded relationship between the increase in BNP (ie, according to quartile) and reduced event-free survival (p<0.0001). In Cox multivariable analysis, indexed LA volume (HR=1.04, p=0.003), GLS (HR=1.14, p=0.007) and 3rd and 4th quartiles of BNP (HR=8.5, p=0.002 and HR=8.8, p=0.002) were independent determinants of event-free survival. In asymptomatic degenerative MR, LV longitudinal function and LA volume are the main determinants of BNP release. BNP is a powerful independent predictor of cardiac events. Measurement of plasma BNP may help to improve risk stratification and management of asymptomatic patients with degenerative MR.Heart (British Cardiac Society) 02/2012; 98(7):584-91. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Watchful waiting is an established treatment strategy for asymptomatic patients with severe organic mitral regurgitation. It is based on indications for surgery that are based on current European Society of Cardiology and American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guideline recommendations, which are defined by symptom onset, impairment of left ventricular function, and left ventricular enlargement. Excellent outcome is achieved when patients are periodically followed with clinical and echocardiographic examinations and when surgery is performed in expert centers. The strategy is based on the recognition of mitral regurgitation at an early symptomatic stage, avoiding a delayed referral of these patients. There is an ongoing debate about whether surgery should be performed in asymptomatic patients with preserved ventricular function. Ultimately, decision-making needs to be individualized and to take individual patient-related factors and local resources (including the natural history of the disease, the risk of surgery, and the likelihood of successful mitral valve repair) into consideration to obtain an optimal outcome with medical and surgical management.Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 01/2011; 23(3):203-8.