The role of functional imaging in colorectal cancer.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the current and future contributions of functional imaging techniques to improve diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of colorectal cancer. In addition, evolving roles and challenges for their implementation will be covered. CONCLUSION: Functional imaging now has a growing role in colorectal cancer. Recent developments in imaging technologies and validation of these newer imaging techniques may lead to significant improvements in the management of patients with colorectal cancer.
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ABSTRACT: We compared morphologic computed tomography (CT)-based to metabolic fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT-based response evaluation in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and correlated the findings with survival and KRAS status. From 2006 to 2009, patients were included in a phase II trial and treated with cetuximab and irinotecan every second week. They underwent FDG-PET/CT examination at baseline and after every fourth treatment cycle. Response evaluation was performed prospectively according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.0) and retrospectively according to Positron Emission Tomography Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (PERCIST). Best overall responses were registered. Sixty-one patients were eligible for response evaluation. Partial response (PR) rate was 18%, stable disease (SD) rate 64%, and progressive disease (PD) rate 18%. Partial metabolic response (PMR) rate was 56%, stable metabolic disease rate 33%, and progressive metabolic disease (PMD) rate 11%. Response agreement was poor, κ-coefficient 0.19. Hazard ratio for overall survival for responders (PR/PMR) versus nonresponders (PD/PMD) was higher for CT- than for FDG-PET/CT evaluation. Within patients with KRAS mutations, none had PR but 44% had PMR. In conclusion, morphologic and metabolic response agreement was poor primarily because a large part of the patients shifted from SD with CT evaluation to PMR when evaluated with FDG-PET/CT. Furthermore, a larger fraction of the patients with KRAS mutations had a metabolic treatment response.Cancer Medicine 06/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Guidelines recommend MRI as part of the staging work-up of patients with rectal cancer because it can identify high-risk groups requiring preoperative treatment. Phenomenal tumour responses have been observed with current chemoradiotherapy regimens-even complete regression in 25% of patients. For these patients, the options of organ-saving treatment as an alternative to surgery are now discussed, and critical for this approach is the availability of tools that can accurately measure response. The value of MRI in rectal cancer staging is established, but the role of MRI for the selection of patients for organ-saving treatment is debatable, because MRI is not able to accurately assess tumour response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (owing to its reliance on morphological changes). Functional MRI is emerging in the field of oncology. It combines information on detailed anatomy with that of tumour biology, providing comprehensive information on tumour heterogeneity and its changes as a result of treatment. This Review provides knowledge on the strengths and weaknesses of MRI for response assessment after chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer and on its ability to predict tumour response at the time of primary diagnosis. It elaborates on new functional magnetic resonance technology and discusses whether this and new postprocessing approaches have the potential to improve prediction and assessment of response.Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 03/2014; · 10.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the last 10 years the mortality rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) has decreased by more than 20% due to the rising developments in diagnostic techniques and optimization of surgical, neoadjuvant and palliative therapies. Diagnostic methods currently used in the evaluation of CRC are heterogeneous and can vary within the countries and the institutions. This article aims to discuss in depth currently applied imaging modalities such as virtual computed tomography colonoscopy, endorectal ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of CRC. Special focus is put on the potential of recent diagnostic developments as diffusion weighted imaging MRI, MRI biomarkers (dynamic enhanced MRI), positron emission tomography with 2-(fluorine-18)-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET) combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) and new hepatobiliary MRI contrast agents. The precise role, advantage and disadvantages of these modalities are evaluated controversially in local staging, metastatic spread and treatment monitoring of CRC. Finally, the authors will touch upon the future perspectives in functional imaging evaluating the role of integrated FDG-PET/CT with perfusion CT, MRI spectroscopy of primary CRC and hepatic transit time analysis using contrast enhanced ultrasound and MRI in the detection of liver metastases. Validation of these newer imaging techniques may lead to significant improvements in the management of patients with colorectal cancer.World Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2013; 19(46):8502-8514. · 2.55 Impact Factor