The role of functional imaging in colorectal cancer.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the current and future contributions of functional imaging techniques to improve diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of colorectal cancer. In addition, evolving roles and challenges for their implementation will be covered. CONCLUSION: Functional imaging now has a growing role in colorectal cancer. Recent developments in imaging technologies and validation of these newer imaging techniques may lead to significant improvements in the management of patients with colorectal cancer.
- SourceAvailable from: Geerard L Beets[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the performance of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) for the detection of lymph nodes and for differentiating between benign and metastatic nodes during primary rectal cancer staging. Twenty-one patients underwent 1.5-T MRI followed by surgery (± preoperative 5 × 5 Gy). Imaging consisted of T2-weighted MRI, DWI (b0, 500, 1000), and 3DT1-weighted MRI with 1-mm isotropic voxels. The latter was used for accurate detection and per lesion histological validation of nodes. Two independent readers analysed the signal intensity on DWI and measured the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) for each node (ADCnode) and the ADC of each node relative to the mean tumour ADC (ADCrel). DWI detected 6 % more nodes than T2W-MRI. The signal on DWI was not accurate for the differentiation of metastatic nodes (AUC 0.45-0.50). Interobserver reproducibility for the nodal ADC measurements was excellent (ICC 0.93). Mean ADCnode was higher for benign than for malignant nodes (1.15 ± 0.24 vs. 1.04 ± 0.22 *10(-3) mm(2)/s), though not statistically significant (P = 0.10). Area under the ROC curve/sensitivity/specificity for the assessment of metastatic nodes were 0.64/67 %/60 % for ADCnode and 0.67/75 %/61 % for ADCrel. DWI can facilitate lymph node detection, but alone it is not reliable for differentiating between benign and malignant lymph nodes. • Diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers new information in rectal cancer. • DW MRI demonstrates more lymph nodes than standard T2-weighted MRI. • Visual DWI assessment does not discriminate between benign and metastatic nodes. • Apparent diffusion coefficients do not discriminate between benign and metastatic nodes.European Radiology 07/2013; · 3.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has emerged as an important tool in the diagnostic work-up of patients with bowel cancer and inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. It functions on the basis of the microscopic motion of water molecules in a cellular environment and provides functional information about the water in body tissues. Diffusion-weighted imaging serves to complement conventional MR imaging, and its use may improve the accuracy of tumor detection and staging. It does not rely on the use of intravenous contrast material and may be performed in patients with renal impairment. Because it provides quantitative information about tissue cellularity, diffusion-weighted imaging may be used to distinguish between tissues with altered cellularity (eg, tumors and metastases) and normal tissues. Data from diffusion-weighted MR images enable the calculation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, which provide useful information about response to treatment. Malignant gastrointestinal tract tumors have low ADC values, which increase after successful therapy. Diffusion-weighted imaging also plays a role in the evaluation of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and may help assess inflammation and complications, such as abscesses and fistulas. Quantitative measurements of signal intensity at diffusion-weighted imaging may help differentiate actively inflamed bowel from normal bowel, and ADC values provide useful information about disease activity and response to treatment. ©RSNA, 2013.Radiographics 05/2013; 33(3):655-676. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the last 10 years the mortality rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) has decreased by more than 20% due to the rising developments in diagnostic techniques and optimization of surgical, neoadjuvant and palliative therapies. Diagnostic methods currently used in the evaluation of CRC are heterogeneous and can vary within the countries and the institutions. This article aims to discuss in depth currently applied imaging modalities such as virtual computed tomography colonoscopy, endorectal ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of CRC. Special focus is put on the potential of recent diagnostic developments as diffusion weighted imaging MRI, MRI biomarkers (dynamic enhanced MRI), positron emission tomography with 2-(fluorine-18)-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG-PET) combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) and new hepatobiliary MRI contrast agents. The precise role, advantage and disadvantages of these modalities are evaluated controversially in local staging, metastatic spread and treatment monitoring of CRC. Finally, the authors will touch upon the future perspectives in functional imaging evaluating the role of integrated FDG-PET/CT with perfusion CT, MRI spectroscopy of primary CRC and hepatic transit time analysis using contrast enhanced ultrasound and MRI in the detection of liver metastases. Validation of these newer imaging techniques may lead to significant improvements in the management of patients with colorectal cancer.World Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2013; 19(46):8502-8514. · 2.55 Impact Factor