Profiling multiple provider prescribing of opioids, benzodiazepines, stimulants, and anorectics.

VA Northern California Health Care System, Sacramento, CA 95655, USA.
Drug and alcohol dependence (Impact Factor: 3.6). 11/2010; 112(1-2):99-106. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.05.007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of multiple providers for different controlled substances using the largest electronic prescription monitoring program (PMP) in the United States. A secondary objective was to explore patient and medication variables associated with prescriptions involving multiple providers. PMPs monitor the final allocation of controlled substances from pharmacist to patient. The primary purpose of this scrutiny is to diminish the utilization of multiple providers for controlled substances.
This is a secondary data analysis of the California PMP, the Controlled Substance Utilization Review and Evaluation System (CURES). The prevalence of multiple provider episodes was determined using data collected during 2007. A series of binomial logistic regressions was used to predict the odds ratio (OR) of multiple prescriber episodes for each generic type of controlled substance (i.e., opioid, benzodiazepine, stimulant, or diet pill (anorectic) using demographic and prescription variables.
Opioid prescriptions (12.8%) were most frequently involved in multiple provider episodes followed by benzodiazepines (4.2%), stimulants (1.4%), and anorectics (0.9%), respectively. The greatest associations with multiple provider episodes were simultaneously receiving prescriptions for different controlled substances.
Opioids were involved in multiple provider prescribing more frequently than other controlled substances. The likelihood of using multiple providers to obtain one class of medications was substantially elevated as patients received additional categories of controlled substances from the same provider or from multiple practitioners. Polypharmacy represents a signal that requires additional vigilance to detect the potential presence of doctor shopping.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the value of a prescription monitoring program in identifying prescription drug misuse among patients presenting to a resident physician outpatient psychiatry clinic at an academic medical center. Method: Participants were 314 new patients aged 18 years or older presenting to the clinic from October 2011 to June 2012. Resident physicians completed a data collection form for each participant using information from the patient interview and from the prescription monitoring program report. Prescription drug misuse was defined as having any 1 of the following 5 criteria in the prescription monitoring program report: (1) filled prescriptions for 2 or more controlled substances, (2) obtained prescriptions from 2 or more providers, (3) obtained early refills, (4) used 3 or more pharmacies, and (5) the prescription monitoring program report conflicted with the patient’s report. Results: At least 1 indicator of prescription drug misuse was found in 41.7% of patients. Over 69% of the patients that the residents believed were misusing prescription drugs actually met 1 of the criteria for prescription drug misuse. The prescription monitoring program report changed the management only 2.2% of the time. Patients with prior benzodiazepine use (χ21 = 17.68, P < .001), prior opioid use (χ21 = 19.98, P < .001), a personality disorder (χ21 = 7.22, P < .001), and chronic pain (χ21 = 14.31, P < .001) had a higher percentage of prescription drug misuse compared to patients without these factors. Conclusions: Using the prescription monitoring program to screen patients with prior benzodiazepine and opioid use, with a personality disorder, and/or with chronic pain may be useful in confirming the suspicion of prescription drug misuse identified at the initial evaluation.
    The Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 01/2014; 16(1).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications are subject to abuse, misuse, and diversion. Obtaining ADHD prescriptions from multiple prescribers or filled across multiple pharmacies, known as 'doctor shopping', may reflect such unsanctioned use. We sought to create a definition of shopping behavior that differentiated ADHD medications from medications with low risk of diversion, i.e. asthma medications, and describe the incidence, frequency, and demography of shopping behavior.
    Drugs in R & D 08/2014; · 1.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The negative consequences of narcotic use and diversion for nonmedical use are on the rise. A growing number of narcotic abusers obtain narcotic prescriptions from multiple providers ("doctor shopping"). This study sought to determine the effects of multiple postoperative narcotic providers on the number of narcotic prescriptions, duration of narcotics, and morphine equivalent dose per day in the orthopaedic trauma population.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 08/2014; 96(15):1257-1262. · 4.31 Impact Factor