Profiling multiple provider prescribing of opioids, benzodiazepines, stimulants, and anorectics
ABSTRACT The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of multiple providers for different controlled substances using the largest electronic prescription monitoring program (PMP) in the United States. A secondary objective was to explore patient and medication variables associated with prescriptions involving multiple providers. PMPs monitor the final allocation of controlled substances from pharmacist to patient. The primary purpose of this scrutiny is to diminish the utilization of multiple providers for controlled substances.
This is a secondary data analysis of the California PMP, the Controlled Substance Utilization Review and Evaluation System (CURES). The prevalence of multiple provider episodes was determined using data collected during 2007. A series of binomial logistic regressions was used to predict the odds ratio (OR) of multiple prescriber episodes for each generic type of controlled substance (i.e., opioid, benzodiazepine, stimulant, or diet pill (anorectic) using demographic and prescription variables.
Opioid prescriptions (12.8%) were most frequently involved in multiple provider episodes followed by benzodiazepines (4.2%), stimulants (1.4%), and anorectics (0.9%), respectively. The greatest associations with multiple provider episodes were simultaneously receiving prescriptions for different controlled substances.
Opioids were involved in multiple provider prescribing more frequently than other controlled substances. The likelihood of using multiple providers to obtain one class of medications was substantially elevated as patients received additional categories of controlled substances from the same provider or from multiple practitioners. Polypharmacy represents a signal that requires additional vigilance to detect the potential presence of doctor shopping.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Drugs affecting the central nervous system form a unique group of products for surveillance because they could be misused, abused or diverted. Considering the characteristics of this behaviour that is often concealed, specific post-marketing surveillance systems have been developed to monitor abuse of prescription drugs in some countries. The purpose of this review is to list and to describe post-marketing surveillance systems, according their methodology, in France and in foreign countries. These programs are based on adverse effect notifications, medical or legal consequences of abuse, general or specific population-based survey, professional networks or medication databases. Some programs use simultaneously several information sources. In conclusion, the multifaceted nature, the diversity and the inventiveness of post-marketing surveillance systems reflects the complexity of the abuse issue.Thérapie 66(3):263-72. DOI:10.2515/therapie/2011045 · 0.40 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: About a year ago, NASA Headquarters requested the SIM project to develop a less costly approach to performing micro-arc-second astrometry. The SIM Team responded by forming a Tiger Team and attacking the problem with vigor. Eliminating two secondary objectives (ing and imaging) opened up several options that led to a new configuration that met the cost target. Another simplification came about when it was decided to launch using the Space Shuttle. The very large payload bay allowed us to eliminate the hinge in the middle of the precision structure supporting the optical elements. In this paper, we discuss the current reference design of the SIM instrument, and illustrate some of the tradeoffs that led to this arrangement.Aerospace Conference Proceedings, 2002. IEEE; 02/2002
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Methylphenidate is a psychostimulant drug indicated for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Its abuse and diversion have been previously described in specific populations, such as students; however, few studies investigating abuse and diversion among the overall population are available. The aim of this study was to describe patterns of methylphenidate use and to explore the magnitude of its abuse and diversion in two French administrative areas using data from a reimbursement database. A proxy of 'deviant behaviour' was used for the abuse and diversion of methylphenidate, defined using the following parameters: total number of defined daily doses (DDDs) of methylphenidate dispensed; number of different pharmacies seen for dispensing of methylphenidate; number of prescribers consulted for a prescription of methylphenidate; and number of dispensings of methylphenidate. Data from the reimbursement database were analysed by clustering methods. These data were assessed from 2005 to 2008. The French General Health Insurance System (GHIS) database was used to obtain data on methylphenidate use in two French administrative areas. Individuals affiliated to the GHIS who had a prescription for methylphenidate reimbursed between 1 January and 31 March of 4 selected years (2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008) were included. After the first dispensing of methylphenidate for these individuals, all their dispensings (including methylphenidate and other psychoactive drugs) were monitored over a 9-month period. Following a descriptive analysis, a clustering method was used to identify different subgroups of subjects according to the methylphenidate consumer profile characteristics. With regard to the number of patients who had a dispensing for methylphenidate during the first quarter of the year, an 84% increase was observed between 2005 (n = 640) and 2008 (n = 1175). The clustering method identified two subgroups. One of them was characterized by a higher number of dispensings, different prescribers and pharmacies and a greater total dispensed quantity, suggesting a deviant behaviour and, thus, possible abuse and diversion of methylphenidate. These subjects were older (aged 35.4 ± 11.3 years) and were more frequently patients receiving benzodiazepines, antidepressants, antipsychotics and maintenance opioid treatment. The proportion of subjects with a deviant behaviour increased from 0.5% in 2005 to 2% in 2007 and then decreased to 1.2% in 2008. This method was able to assess the magnitude of methylphenidate abuse liability and to follow its evolution. The decrease in methylphenidate abuse and diversion seen between 2007 and 2008 can be explained by the enactment in April 2008 of specific regulations for prescription drugs (such as methylphenidate) that are deemed by the French government to have the potential for misuse; these regulations require the establishment of a 'contract of care' between the GHIS, prescriber and patient.CNS Drugs 05/2011; 25(5):415-24. DOI:10.2165/11587640-000000000-00000 · 4.38 Impact Factor