Thermal and dual stimuli-responsive microspheres (pH and temperature) were prepared by free radical polymerization of methacrylate bovine serum albumin (BSA-MA) as cross-linker and sodium methacrylate (NaMA) and/or N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm), as hydrophilic/pH-sensitive and thermo-responsive monomers, respectively. Microgels were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, morphological analysis, particle size distribution and determination of swelling properties. The network density and the shape of the microgels were found to depend on the concentration of the reactive species in the polymerization feed. Thermal analyses were performed to determine lower critical solution temperature values, which become close to the body temperature by increasing the content of the hydrophilic moieties in the network. In order to test the preformed materials as drug carriers, in vitro release studies of Diclofenac diethyl ammonium salt were performed. For all the co-polymers, a predominant drug release in the collapsed state was observed, while below the microgel transition temperature, a drug release through the swollen network occurs. The data recorded during the release tests demonstrated that the pH of the surrounding environment influences the drug release more than the temperature of the imbibing medium.
"These materials show a minimal tendency to cell adhesion and to absorption of proteins from body fluids due to their very low interfacial tension. In addition, the swelling capacity allows to easily remove reagent residues [73, 74]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of biologics, polymers, silicon materials, carbon materials, and metals has been proposed for the preparation of innovative drug delivery devices. One of the most promising materials in this field are the carbon-nanotubes composites and hybrid materials coupling the advantages of polymers (biocompatibility and biodegradability) with those of carbon nanotubes (cellular uptake, stability, electromagnatic, and magnetic behavior). The applicability of polymer-carbon nanotubes composites in drug delivery, with particular attention to the controlled release by composites hydrogel, is being extensively investigated in the present review.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thermo-responsive polysaccharidic hydrogels were designed and synthesized by a free radical induced grafting procedure. Chitosan was chosen as biopolymer to impart biocompatibility and biodegradability to the macromolecular systems, while N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) was selected as co-monomer responsive for the thermo-sensitive properties. Ammonium persulfate was the initiator system and different polymeric networks have been synthesized by modulating the amount of NIPAAm in the polymerization feed. The resulting hydrogels were proposed as drug delivery devices and their performance was evaluated by using Diclofenac sodium salt as a model drug. Hydrogels were carefully characterized by FT-IR spectrophotometry, calorimetric analyses and swelling behavior in a temperature range of 15-45°C. Finally, to verify the suitability of these hydrogels as thermo-responsive devices, the drug release profiles were studied performing in vitro experiments around the swelling-shrinking transition temperatures of the macromolecular systems.
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology 12/2011; 18(5). DOI:10.3109/10837450.2011.644298 · 1.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were chemically functionalized with methacrylic acid and methacrylated bovine serum albumin by free radical grafting reaction to obtain novel nanocomposites. The nanotubes were synthesized by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition, and then the monomers were directly grafted by the action of hydrogen peroxide/ascorbic acid redox pair which allows operating in water-compatible and eco-friendly environment without the generation of any toxic reaction by-product. A multi-technique approach was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the grafting process employing Fourier transform infrared, Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analyses. Considering the high importance of methacrylate polymers and bovine serum albumin, the proposed nanocomposites could be of great applicability in biomedical and pharmaceutical fields.
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