Functional Topography of the Cerebellum in Verbal Working Memory

Department of Neurology, Division of Cognitive Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1620 McElderry St., Reed Hall 2205B, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
Neuropsychology Review (Impact Factor: 4.59). 09/2010; 20(3):271-9. DOI: 10.1007/s11065-010-9137-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Speech-both overt and covert-facilitates working memory by creating and refreshing motor memory traces, allowing new information to be received and processed. Neuroimaging studies suggest a functional topography within the sub-regions of the cerebellum that subserve verbal working memory. Medial regions of the anterior cerebellum support overt speech, consistent with other forms of motor execution such as finger tapping, whereas lateral portions of the superior cerebellum support speech planning and preparation (e.g., covert speech). The inferior cerebellum is active when information is maintained across a delay, but activation appears to be independent of speech, lateralized by modality of stimulus presentation, and possibly related to phonological storage processes. Motor (dorsal) and cognitive (ventral) channels of cerebellar output nuclei can be distinguished in working memory. Clinical investigations suggest that hyper-activity of cerebellum and disrupted control of inner speech may contribute to certain psychiatric symptoms.

16 Reads
  • Source
    • "The cerebellum, in contrast, has been proposed to support maintenance of verbal working memory (i.e. articulatory rehearsal) via its connections with motor cortex (Marvel and Desmond, 2010). Although a number of right-hemisphere regions were active during the dialogic condition, there was less evidence to suggest that this involved the specific recruitment of either language region homologues or voice-selective areas. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inner speech has been implicated in important aspects of normal and atypical cognition, including the development of auditory hallucinations. Studies to date have focused on covert speech elicited by simple word or sentence repetition, while ignoring richer and arguably more psychologically significant varieties of inner speech. This study compared neural activation for inner speech involving conversations ('dialogic inner speech') with single-speaker scenarios ('monologic inner speech'). Inner speech-related activation differences were then compared with activations relating to Theory-of-Mind (ToM) reasoning and visual perspective-taking in a conjunction design. Generation of dialogic (compared to monologic) scenarios was associated with a widespread bilateral network including left and right superior temporal gyri, precuneus, posterior cingulate, and left inferior and medial frontal gyri. Activation associated with dialogic scenarios and ToM reasoning overlapped in areas of right posterior temporal cortex previously linked to mental state representation. Implications for understanding verbal cognition in typical and atypical populations are discussed. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press.
    Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 07/2015; DOI:10.1093/scan/nsv094 · 7.37 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "), with specific functions in maintenance of verbal information and covert planning of speech acts (Geva et al., 2011; Marvel & Desmond, 2010; Scott, 2013). This view of inner speech is reflected in the selection of tasks in neuroimaging studies, in which participants are typically asked to repeat words or sentences, or judge the stress of specific syllables. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inner speech-also known as covert speech or verbal thinking-has been implicated in theories of cognitive development, speech monitoring, executive function, and psychopathology. Despite a growing body of knowledge on its phenomenology, development, and function, approaches to the scientific study of inner speech have remained diffuse and largely unintegrated. This review examines prominent theoretical approaches to inner speech and methodological challenges in its study, before reviewing current evidence on inner speech in children and adults from both typical and atypical populations. We conclude by considering prospects for an integrated cognitive science of inner speech, and present a multicomponent model of the phenomenon informed by developmental, cognitive, and psycholinguistic considerations. Despite its variability among individuals and across the life span, inner speech appears to perform significant functions in human cognition, which in some cases reflect its developmental origins and its sharing of resources with other cognitive processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychological Bulletin 05/2015; 141(5). DOI:10.1037/bul0000021 · 14.76 Impact Factor
    • "" View " ) condition from the encoding blocks , both groups showed activation in left frontal areas such as the inferior frontal gyrus , temporal areas like the fusiform cortex , and subcortical areas such as the paracingulate gyrus . Further , both groups showed sensory related activation in the occipital lobe likely due to the increased salience and visual processing , as well as cere - bellar activation , which has previously been implicated in working memory tasks and other cognitive functions ( Marvel & Desmond , 2010 ) . However , between - group comparisons for encoding revealed the non - concussed group showed greater activation in several left hemisphere regions , including the middle frontal gyrus , inferior frontal gyrus , the orbitofrontal cortex , the planum temporale ( Wernicke ' s area ) , the angular gyrus , and the supramarginal gyrus . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Multiple concussions before the age of 18 may be associated with late-life memory deficits. This study examined neural activation associated with verbal encoding and memory retrieval in former athletes ages 40-65 who received at least two concussions (median = 3; range = 2-15) playing high school football and a group of former high school football players with no reported history of concussions matched on age, education, and pre-morbid IQ. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected during a modified verbal paired associates paradigm indicated that those with concussive histories had hypoactivation in left hemispheric language regions, including the inferior/middle frontal gyri and angular gyrus compared with controls. However, concussive history was not associated with worse memory functioning on neuropsychological tests or worse behavioral performance during the paradigm, suggesting that multiple early-life concussions may be associated with subtle changes in the verbal encoding system that limits one from accessing higher-order semantic networks, but this difference does not translate into measurable cognitive performance deficits. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
    Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 04/2015; 30(4). DOI:10.1093/arclin/acv020 · 1.99 Impact Factor
Show more


16 Reads
Available from