Clinical course of pediatric urolithiasis: follow-up data in a long-term basis.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the natural course of the stone disease in pediatric patients from different perspectives among which the spontaneous passage and stone recurrence rates evaluated during the follow-up.
A total of 142 children referring with primary urinary stone disease were evaluated and followed. All children in the study were divided into two groups with respect to the age (Group 1: 0-5 years and Group 2: 6-15 years). Children were followed with respect to spontaneous passage rates, recurrence-regrowth rates, physical as well as the renal growth rates.
Stone recurrence has been noted in 44% of patients in group 1, this value was 31% in group 2. Children with at least one identifiable metabolic abnormality tended to have higher recurrence rates than the others despite conservative measures. The average stone recurrence rate in children without any metabolic abnormality was 14% and nearly 50% in children with an identifiable metabolic abnormality.
We may emphasize that due to the high recurrence and re-growth rates, all children with urinary stone disease should be followed closely with regular visits. The evaluation of metabolic risk factors in children with renal stone disease is the basis of medical treatment aimed at preventing recurrent stone events and the growth of pre-existing calculi.
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ABSTRACT: Pediatric urolithiasis is an endemic disease in certain parts of the world, namely Turkey and the Far East. As a recurrent pathology which may reveal functional as well and morphologic changes in the urinary tract, environmental factors together with urogenital abnormalities should be evaluated thoroughly in each patient. The aims of management should be complete clearance of stones, treatment of urinary tract infections, preservation of renal function and prevention of stone recurrence. In addition to certain minimally invasive stone removal procedures, treatment of pediatric urolithiasis requires a detailed metabolic evaluation in all patients on an individual basis. Obstructive pathologies have to be corrected immediately and children with a positive family history should be followed carefully with respect to a high likelihood of stone re-growth and recurrence. Although specific management of each metabolic abnormality seems to be the key factor in the medical management of stone disease, as general advice each child should be forced to adequate fluid intake which will reveal the urine volume increase in accordance with the body mass index. Moreover, medical therapeutic agents which increase urine citrate levels should be encouraged.Urological Research 05/2006; 34(2):96-101. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has been proposed that younger children are less likely to pass renal calculi spontaneously, and that children younger than 10 years are more likely to have an identifiable metabolic abnormality and subsequently a higher risk of recurrence. We report our clinical outcomes in children with urinary calculi, specifically examining these factors. We performed a retrospective review of all pediatric patients diagnosed with renal or ureteral calculi at our institution between 2000 and 2007. Of 150 patients evaluated and treated during this period 80 (86 stones) had sufficient followup data to be included. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to age, namely 10 years or younger and older than 10 years. There were 39 patients in the younger group and 41 patients in the older group. Stone size and location, successful passage or intervention, recurrence and 24-hour urine metabolic study results were recorded. Of the younger cohort stones were ureteral in 43% and renal in 57%. The opposite trend was seen in older patients, with 69% having ureteral and 31% having renal stones (p = 0.02). Mean stone size (greatest dimension) did not differ significantly between the older and younger groups (6.9 mm vs 5.5 mm, p = 0.17). Overall stone passage rate was 34% for younger and 29% for older patients (p = 0.65). No significant mean size differences in passed stones existed between the groups (3.2 mm vs 2.5 mm, p = 0.31). Overall younger vs older ureteral stone passage rate was 37% vs 41% (p = 0.58), and for renal stones it was 32% vs 0%. Stones recurred in 7 younger and 6 older patients. Younger children were more likely to present with renal stones, while older children had more ureteral stones. Overall children 10 years old or younger are as likely to pass stones as older children. Renal stones are more likely to be successfully managed expectantly in younger children. Metabolic abnormalities and stone recurrences are observed at similar rates between younger and older children.The Journal of urology 04/2009; 181(5):2267-71; discussion 2271. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PurposeWe evaluated epidemiology, etiology, dietary and urinary risk factors, and the composition of calculi in pediatric stone formers in Pakistan.Materials and MethodsThis retrospective study includes 1,440 children treated between 1987 and 2000. Case records were reviewed for demographics, etiology and clinical symptoms. Dietary and urinary risk factors were analyzed prospectively in idiopathic stone formers. Stone composition was analyzed by infrared spectroscopy.ResultsThere were 1,075 males and 365 females for a male-to-female ratio of 3:1. The peak age for renal and bladder stones was 6 to 10 and 1 to 5 years, respectively. Overall 795 stones (55%) were renal, 198 (14%) were ureteral and 447 (31%) were vesical. Bladder stones were present in 60% of cases in the mid 1980s but decreased to 15% in the mid 1990s. The clinical symptoms were abdominal pain in 511 patients (51%) and fever in 193 (19.5%). There were anatomical abnormalities in 96 patients (12%), metabolic abnormalities in 206 (25%), infection stones in 60 (7%) and idiopathic stones in 444 (55%). Urinary analysis in idiopathic stone formers revealed hypercalciuria in 17 (11%), hyperoxaluria in 62 (40%), hyperuricosuria in 41 (27%) and hypocitruria in 97 (63%). Diet involved a low intake of protein in 60 cases (44%), calcium in 45 (33%), potassium in 105 (77%) and high oxalate in 75 (55%). The composition was calcium oxalate in 362 stones (47%), ammonium hydrogen urate in 210 (27%) and struvite in 49 (6.4%). Stones recurred in 30 patients (2%).ConclusionsThe pattern of calculous disease changed from a predominantly lower tract site in the mid 1980s to the upper tract in the mid 1990s. Stone composition, urinary risk factors and dietary analysis suggest that diet, dehydration and poor nutrition are the main causative factors of stone disease.The Journal of Urology 11/2002; · 3.70 Impact Factor