Late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood: an exploratory investigation.

Center for Children and Families, State University of New York at Buffalo, 106 Diefendorf Hall, 3435 Main Street, Building 20, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA.
Journal of Attention Disorders (Impact Factor: 2.4). 04/2011; 15(3):204-14. DOI: 10.1177/1087054710361586
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To characterize the late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood.
The study included 58 women from a larger longitudinal study of ADHD. A total of 34 (M = 19.97 years old) met DSM criteria for ADHD in childhood, whereas the remaining 24 (M = 19.83 years old) did not. Self- and parent-reports of psychopathology, delinquency, interpersonal relationships, academic achievement, job performance, and substance use were collected.
The findings suggest that girls with ADHD experience difficulties in late adolescence and young adulthood, such as more conflict with their mothers, being involved in fewer romantic relationships, and experiencing more depressive symptoms than comparison women. However, differences did not emerge in all domains, such as job performance, substance use, and self-reported ADHD symptomatology.
The findings of this study add to the literature on the negative late adolescent and young adult outcomes associated with childhood ADHD in women.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Atomoxetine was first licensed to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents in the US in 2002. The aim of this paper is to comprehensively review subsequent publications addressing the efficacy of atomoxetine in 6- to 18-year-olds with ADHD. We identified 125 eligible papers using a predefined search strategy. Overall, these papers demonstrate that atomoxetine is an effective treatment for the core ADHD symptoms (effect sizes 0.6-1.3, vs. placebo, at 6-18 weeks), and improves functional outcomes and quality of life, in various pediatric populations with ADHD (i.e., males/females, patients with co-morbidities, children/adolescents, and with/without prior exposure to other ADHD medications). Initial responses to atomoxetine may be apparent within 1 week of treatment, but can take longer (median 23 days in a 6-week study; n = 72). Responses often build gradually over time, and may not be robust until after 3 months. A pooled analysis of six randomized placebo-controlled trials (n = 618) indicated that responses at 4 weeks may predict response at 6-9 weeks, although another pooled analysis of open-label data (n = 338) suggests that the probability of a robust response to atomoxetine [≥40 % decrease in ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) scores] may continue to increase beyond 6-9 weeks. Atomoxetine may demonstrate similar efficacy to methylphenidate, particularly immediate-release methylphenidate, although randomized controlled trials are generally limited by short durations (3-12 weeks). In conclusion, notwithstanding these positive findings, before initiating treatment with atomoxetine, it is important that the clinician sets appropriate expectations for the patient and their family with regard to the likelihood of a gradual response, which often builds over time.
    CNS Drugs 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40263-014-0224-9 · 4.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with interpersonal dysfunction during childhood and adolescence, yet little is known about the romantic relationships of young women with childhood ADHD. In the present study, we draw from a longitudinal sample of girls followed prospectively into young adulthood, comparing those with (n = 114) and without (n = 79; comparisons) childhood ADHD in terms of their risk for physical victimization by an intimate partner (physical IPV; e.g., slapping, punching) by 17-24 years of age. We examined ADHD both diagnostically and dimensionally, at the same time establishing reliable indicators of young adult physical IPV. Externalizing and internalizing problems, and academic achievement during adolescence, were tested as potential mediators. Overall, participants with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD experienced more physical IPV than did comparisons (30.7 % vs. 6.3 %). In parallel, IPV was associated with higher levels of childhood ADHD symptomatology (d = 0.73). Young women with persistent ADHD stood the highest risk of experiencing IPV (37.3 %), followed by those with transient ADHD (19.0 %) and those never-diagnosed (5.9 %). Academic achievement measured during adolescence was a significant partial mediator of the childhood ADHD symptomatology-young adult IPV relationship, even with control of sociodemographic, psychiatric, and cognitive factors, including childhood reading and math disorders. Findings indicate that in young women, childhood ADHD is a specific and important predictor of physically violent victimization in their intimate relationships. This vulnerable population requires IPV prevention and intervention, with academic empowerment as a key target.
    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10802-015-9984-z · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined the self-efficacy for self-regulated learning (SESRL) beliefs of male and female youth with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and explored the contribution of youth self-reports of inattention, internalizing symptoms, and academic achievement to SESRL beliefs. Thirty-one youth with ADHD (18 males, 13 females) and 31 youth without ADHD (17 males, 14 females) aged 13 to 18 completed measures of self-efficacy, ADHD symptomatology, achievement, and internalizing problems. Female youth with ADHD reported the lowest levels of confidence in their ability to self-regulate their learning. Male youth with ADHD reported similar levels of SESRL beliefs as youth without ADHD. A multiple mediation analysis with the full sample revealed that internalizing symptoms and academic achievement did not mediate the relationship between self-reported inattention symptoms and SESRL beliefs. The findings suggest a need for ongoing research into the SESRL beliefs of youth with ADHD.
    Learning and Individual Differences 10/2013; 27:149-156. DOI:10.1016/j.lindif.2013.06.009 · 1.58 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 16, 2014