Tea and Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology (Impact Factor: 6). 08/2010; 30(8):1665-71. DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.109.201939
Source: PubMed


To examine the associations of coffee and tea consumption with risk of morbidity and mortality of stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD) and with all-cause mortality.
Coffee and tea consumption were assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and 37 514 participants were observed for 13 years for the occurrence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A U-shaped association between coffee and CHD was found, with the lowest hazard ratio (HR [95% CI]) for 2.1 to 3.0 cups per day (0.79 [0.65 to 0.96]; P(trend)=0.01). Tea was inversely associated with CHD, with the lowest HR (95% CI) for more than 6.0 cups per day (0.64 [0.46 to 0.90]; P(trend)=0.02). No associations between tea or coffee and stroke were found (P(trend)=0.63 and P(trend)=0.32, respectively). Although not significant, coffee slightly reduced the risk for CHD mortality (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.37 to 1.11; P(trend)=0.12) for 3.1 to 6.0 cups per day. A U-shaped association between tea and CHD mortality was observed, with an HR of 0.55 (95% CI, 0.31 to 0.97; P(trend)=0.03) for 3.1 to 6.0 cups per day. Neither coffee nor tea was associated with stroke (P(trend)=0.22 and P(trend)=0.74, respectively) and all-cause mortality (P(trend)=0.33 and P(trend)=0.43, respectively).
High tea consumption is associated with a reduced risk of CHD mortality. Our results suggest a slight risk reduction for CHD mortality with moderate coffee consumption and strengthen the evidence on the lower risk of CHD with coffee and tea consumption.

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    • "Epidemiologic studies have indicated that regular coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk for CVD [3] [12] [13]. However, the coffee compounds responsible for the suggestive TAFC contributed to the study design, data collection, analysis, and interpretation , and wrote the manuscript. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of medium light roast (MLR) and medium roast (MR) paper-filtered coffee on cardiovascular risk factors in healthy volunteers. Methods: This randomized crossover trial compared the effects of consuming three or four cups (150 mL) of MLR or MR coffee per day for 4 wk in 20 healthy volunteers. Plasma lipids, lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]), total homocysteine, and endothelial dysfunction-related inflammation biomarkers, serum glycemic biomarkers, and blood pressure were measured at baseline and after each intervention. Results: Both roasts increased plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) concentrations (10%, 12%, and 18% for MLR; 12%, 14%, and 14% for MR, respectively) (P < 0.05). MR also increased high-density lipoportein-cholesterol concentration by 7% (P = 0.003). Plasma fibrinogen concentration increased 8% after MR intake (P = 0.01), and soluble E-selectin increased 12% after MLR intake (P = 0.02). No changes were observed for Lp(a), total homocysteine, glycemic biomarkers, and blood pressure. Conclusion: Moderate paper-filtered coffee consumption may have an undesirable effect on plasma cholesterol and inflammation biomarkers in healthy individuals regardless of its antioxidant content.
    Nutrition 03/2013; 29(7-8). DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2013.01.003 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    • "Several epidemiological and experimental investigations have described an inverse association between tea consumption and cardiovascular diseases [1]. A recent study described an association between coffee and tea consumption and a low morbidity and mortality risk from stroke, coronary heart disease (CHD), and all causes of mortality in 37,514 subjects followed for 13 years [2]. A possible causal factor associated with tea and coffee consumption is the role of bioactive compounds present in these foods in metabolic pathways related to body weight loss, and a consequent reduction of the overall risk for developing metabolic syndrome [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Previous experimental investigations have suggested that guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, supplied by EMBRAPA Oriental) consumption is associated with a lower prevalence of cardiovascular metabolic diseases and has positive effects on lipid metabolism, mainly related to low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. As LDL oxidation is an important initial event in the development of atherosclerosis, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies to observe the potential effects of guaraná on LDL and serum oxidation. Methods The in vivo protocol was performed using blood samples from 42 healthy elderly subjects who habitually ingested guaraná (GI) or never ingested guaraná (NG). The formation of conjugated dienes (CDs) was analyzed from serum samples. The in vitro protocols were performed using LDL obtained from 3 healthy, non-fasted, normolipidemic voluntary donors who did not habitually ingest guaraná in their diets. The LDL samples were exposed to 5 different guaraná concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 μg/mL). Results GI subjects demonstrated lower LDL oxidation than did NG subjects (reduction of 27%, p < 0.0014), independent of other variables. In the GI group the total polyphenols was positively associated with LDL levels. Also, guaraná demonstrated a high antioxidant activity in vitro, mainly at concentrations of 1 and 5 μg/mL, demonstrated by suppression of CDs and TBARS productions, tryptophan destruction and high TRAP activity. Conclusions Guaraná, similar to other foods rich in caffeine and catechins such as green tea, has some effect on LDL oxidation that could partially explain the protective effects of this food in cardiometabolic diseases.
    Lipids in Health and Disease 02/2013; 12(1):12. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-12-12 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    • "Among studies assessing the relationship between coffee consumption and risk of stroke, 2 cohort studies reported prophylactic effects of coffee consumption on the development of stroke,12,13) while 6 studies showed no significant relationship between the two.14-19) In one cohort study, despite the statistically insignificant relationship between coffee consumption and risk of stroke, stroke risk tended to decrease as coffee consumption increased in women.20) "
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    ABSTRACT: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, and contains caffeine and phenolic compounds. Many studies on the association between coffee consumption and risk of stroke have been reported, however, more research is needed to further explore many studies' inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to verify the relationship between coffee consumption and stroke. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, using the keywords "coffee" or "caffeine" for the exposure factors, and "transient ischemic attack" or "stroke" or "acute cerebral infarction" or "cardiovascular events" for the outcome factors. We included prospective cohort and case-control studies published between 2001 and July 2011 in this review. The search was limited to English language. Among 27 articles identified for this review, only 9 studies met the inclusion criteria, all of which were cohort studies. When using all cohort studies, the pooled relative risk (RR) of stroke for the highest vs. lowest category of coffee consumption was 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 0.91). When subgroup analysis was performed, for Europeans, increased coffee drinking showed a preventive effect on stroke occurrence with RR 0.82 (95% CI, 0.74 to 0.92); RR for women 0.81 (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.93); for ischemic stroke 0.80 (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.90); and for those drinking 4 cups or more per day 0.83 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.91). We found that coffee consumption of 4 cups or more per day showed a preventive effect on stroke in this meta-analysis.
    Korean Journal of Family Medicine 11/2012; 33(6):356-65. DOI:10.4082/kjfm.2012.33.6.356
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