Antidepressant-like effect of genipin in mice.
ABSTRACT The present study aimed to investigate the antidepressant potential of genipin and its possible mechanisms. Mouse models of depression including the forced swimming test (FST) and the tail suspension test (TST) were used to evaluate the effects of genipin. A possible mechanism was explored in the test of antagonism of reserpine-induced ptosis and hypothermia in mice. The contents of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites including epinephrine (NE), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in mice hippocampi were determined by HPLC-ECD. The results showed that intra-gastric administration of genipin at 50, 100, 200mg/kg or fluoxetine at 7.5mg/kg for 7 days significantly reduced the duration of immobility in FST and TST, while it did not affect the locomotor activity in the open field test (OFT). However, the effect was not dose-dependent. When the mice were treated with genipin or fluoxetine for 7 days, both of them could antagonize reserpine-induced ptosis and hypothermia. The 5-HT and NE contents in mice hippocampi were decreased after the peritoneal injection of reserpine at 2.0mg/kg. The pre-treatment with genipin at 50, 100, 200mg/kg or fluoxetine at 7.5mg/kg for 7 days could elevate the contents of NE and 5-HT in mice hippocampi significantly. The results suggest that compared with fluoxetine, genipin exerts antidepressant-like effects significantly. A possible mechanism, at least in part, is the regulation of the 5-HT and NE levels in the hippocampus.
Article: Transformation of geniposide into genipin by immobilized β-glucosidase in a two-phase aqueous-organic system.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Genipin is the bioactive compound of geniposide and a natural cross-linking agent. In order to improve the preparation process of genipin, the hydrolysis of geniposide to genipin by immobilized β-glucosidase in an aqueous-organic two-phase system was studied. β-glucosidase was immobilized by the crosslinking-embedding method using sodium alginate as the carrier. The optimum reaction temperature, pH value and time were 55 °C, 4.5 and 2.5 h, respectively. To reduce genipin hydrolysis and byproduct production the reaction was carried out in an aqueous-organic two-phase system comprising ethyl acetate and sodium acetate buffer. The product was analyzed by HPLC, UV, IR, and NMR. The yield of genipin was 47.81% and its purity was over 98% (HPLC).Molecules 01/2011; 16(5):4295-304. · 2.39 Impact Factor