Outcomes of follow-up CT for small (5-10-mm) arterially enhancing nodules in the liver and risk factors for developing hepatocellular carcinoma in a surveillance population.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the outcomes of small (5-10 mm), arterially enhancing nodules (SAENs) shown exclusively at the hepatic arterial phase of CT in a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance population and to determine risk factors for developing HCC.
The study population included 112 patients (male:female = 100:12; aged 36-92 years) with 175 SAENs who were at risk of HCC. We evaluated serial changes during follow-up (1.4-41.8 months, mean 35.7 months) and analysed the initial CT findings of SAENs and the accompanying lesions to elucidate the risk factors for HCC development.
Of 175 SAENs, 101(57.7%) disappeared and 34(19.4%) persisted. Forty SAENs (22.9%) became HCC in 33 patients (29.5%). Presence of HCC treatment history (p = 0.005, risk ratio = 7.429), a larger size of SAEN (p = 0.003, risk ratio = 1.630), presence of coexistent HCC (p = 0.021, risk ratio = 3.777) and absence of coexistent typical arterioportal shunts (p = 0.003, risk ratio = 4.459) turned out to be independently significant risk factors for future development of HCC.
SAENs were frequently seen in an HCC surveillance population and have a 22.9% probability of becoming HCC on a per-lesion basis. Risk increased particularly when the lesion was associated with a previous or concurrent HCC, a large size or found without a coexistent typical arterioportal shunt.
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ABSTRACT: To determine if the combination of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging helps to increase accuracy and sensitivity in the diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) compared with those achieved by using each MR imaging technique alone. The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived the requirement for informed consent. The study included 130 patients (95 men, 35 women) with 179 surgically confirmed small HCCs (≤2.0 cm) and 130 patients with cirrhosis (90 men, 40 women) without HCC who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging and DW imaging at 3.0 T between May 2009 and July 2010. Three sets of images were analyzed independently by three observers to detect HCC: a gadoxetic acid set (unenhanced, early dynamic, and hepatobiliary phases), a DW imaging set, and a combined set. Data were analyzed by using alternative-free response receiver operating characteristic analysis. Diagnostic accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [A(z)]), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were calculated. The mean A(z) values for the combined set (0.952) were significantly higher than those for the gadoxetic acid set (A(z) = 0.902) or the DW imaging set alone (A(z) = 0.871) (P ≤ .008). On a per-lesion basis, observers showed higher sensitivity in their analyses of the combined set (range, 91.1%-93.3% [163-167 of 179]) than in those of the gadoxetic acid set (range, 80.5%-82.1% [144-147 of 179]) or the DW imaging set alone (range, 77.7%-79.9% [139-143 of 179]) (P ≤ .003). Positive predictive values and specificity for all observers were equivalent for the three imaging sets. The combination of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging and DW imaging yielded better diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity in the detection of small HCCs than each MR imaging technique alone.Radiology 07/2012; 264(3):761-70. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To assess whether gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA)-enhanced MR imaging could predict hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis in small arterial enhancing-only nodules detected by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in patients with liver cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively recruited 125 cirrhotic patients (67 males, and 58 females; age: 68 ± 12.36 years) with 151 small (<2 cm in diameter) arterial enhancing-only nodules identified by contrast-enhanced CT. All patients were scanned by MR imaging before and after Gd-BOPTA injection during the hepatic arterial phase (HAP), portal venous phase (PVP), equilibrium phase (EP), and hepatobiliary phase (HP). Nodule characterization was based on reference imaging criteria (n = 29 nodules), follow-up (n = 105), or histology (n = 17). Two radiologists (5 and 10 years experience) analyzed the MR images, and logistic regression was conducted to assess how well MR imaging findings could predict HCC diagnosis. RESULTS: Final diagnoses included 115 benign nodules and 36 HCCs. Nodule T2 hyperintensity, T1 hypointensity, PVP-EP hypointensity, and HP hypointensity were the best predictors of HCC on univariate analysis. Nodule T2 hyperintensity, T1 hypointensity, and HP hypointensity, were independent predictors of HCC on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Gd-BOPTA-enhanced MR imaging provides imaging findings which may predict a diagnosis of HCC in small arterial enhancing-only nodules in cirrhotic patients. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2012;. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 10/2012; · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the added value of 3 Tesla liver MR in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) within the liver computed tomography (CT) -based Milan criteria. Liver CT and MR images of 130 patients with HCC within the Milan criteria based on liver CT were retrospectively reviewed. The number of MR-diagnosed HCCs and that of high risk hypervascular nodules (HRHNs), the effect of obtaining MR on patient management and CT appearances of MR-diagnosed HCCs and those of HRHNs were evaluated. Independent predictor for diagnosing additional HCCs on liver MR was analyzed. A total of 18.5% (24/130) of patients had additional 39 HCCs on MR, with a 5.4% (7/130) dropout rate from the Milan criteria. 28.5% (37/130) of patients had additional 78 HRHNs. Overall, 39.2% (51/130) of patients required changes in management. The common CT appearances of MR-diagnosed HCCs were arterial enhancing lesions ≥ 0.5cm (38.4%, 15/39), low density nodules < 1.5 cm (30.8%, 12/39) and invisibility (28.2%, 11/39). For MR-diagnosed HRHNs, 55.1% (43/78) were invisible on CT. The presence of inconclusive lesions on CT was an independent predictor for diagnosing additional HCCs on MR. For patients with HCCs within the Milan criteria on liver CT, liver MR may be necessary to detect additional HCCs and HRHNs.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 09/2013; · 2.57 Impact Factor