Host immune response seems to be mainly responsible for the progression of liver disease among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Immune activation involves the release of cytokines and their receptors that can be measured in plasma samples. The study aimed to evaluate the association between plasma levels of chemokines and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (sTNFR) and liver histological changes among patients with chronic HCV infection. Seventy-one treatment-naive patients were included. Plasma levels of CCL2, CCL3, CCL11, CCL24, CXCL9, CXCL10, sTNFR1, and sTNFR2 were measured and liver histological findings were reviewed. Plasma levels of CXCL9, sTNFR1, and sTNFR2 were significantly associated with liver fibrosis, with higher median levels found among patients with moderate/severe fibrosis (F >or= 2) if compared to those with no or mild fibrosis (p = 0.014; p = 0.012; p = 0.009, respectively). Plasma sTNFR2 levels were significantly associated with necroinflammatory activity, with higher median levels among patients with moderate/severe activity (A >or= 2) if compared to those with no or mild activity (2.34 ng/mL vs. 1.99 ng/mL; p = 0.019). In conclusion, plasma levels of CXCL9, sTNFR1, and sTNFR2 were independently associated with liver histological changes, suggesting a role of TNF activation and Th1-type cell-mediated immune response in the pathogenesis of HCV infection.
"Indeed, in cirrhotic patients the increased endotoxin influx into the portal vein leads to hepatic expression of soluble TNFα receptors even without evident clinical infection . Different proinflammatory pathways (LPS/TLR/TNFα) activated by stimuli derived from the gut appear associated with the prognosis in addition to the classical prognostic parameters related to liver and kidney function –, , , , , . This can be seen in situations, where the prognosis deteriorates despite a tremendous drop in portal pressure by TIPS. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TNFα levels are increased in liver cirrhosis even in the absence of infection, most likely owing to a continuous endotoxin influx into the portal blood. Soluble TNFα receptors (sTNFR type I and II) reflect release of the short-lived TNFα, because they are cleaved from the cells after binding of TNFα. The aims were to investigate the circulating levels of soluble TNFR-I and -II in cirrhotic patients receiving TIPS.
Forty-nine patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension (12 viral, 37 alcoholic) received TIPS for prevention of re-bleeding (n = 14), therapy-refractory ascites (n = 20), or both (n = 15). Portal and hepatic venous blood was drawn in these patients during the TIPS procedure and during the control catheterization two weeks later. sTNFR-I and sTNFR-II were measured by ELISA, correlated to clinical and biochemical characteristics.
Before TIPS insertion, sTNFR-II levels were lower in portal venous blood than in the hepatic venous blood, as well as in portal venous blood after TIPS insertion. No significant differences were measured in sTNFR-I levels. Hepatic venous levels of sTNFR-I above 4.5 ng/mL (p = 0.036) and sTNFR-II above 7 ng/mL (p = 0.05) after TIPS insertion were associated with decreased survival. A multivariate Cox-regression survival analysis identified the hepatic venous levels of sTNFR-I (p = 0.004) two weeks after TIPS, and Child score (p = 0.002) as independent predictors of mortality, while MELD-score was not.
Hepatic venous levels of sTNFR-I after TIPS insertion may predict mortality in patients with severe portal hypertension.
PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e83341. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0083341 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Other authors (Diago et al. 2006) propose that elevated CXCL10 levels may result in an accumulation of effector T cells in the liver and the selective pressure imposed by this accumulation may foster outgrowth of immune escape HCV mutants that would be more difficult to eradicate with combined therapy (Diago et al. 2006). The observed association between CXCL10 levels and therapeutic response was not mediated by liver histological changes, as plasma levels of this chemokine were not associated with liver inflammatory activity or fibrosis in a subanalysis of the dataset (Moura et al. 2010). CXCL9, which binds the same chemokine receptor as CXCL10 (i.e., CXC3), did not show an association with virological response in our study, in accordance with findings from a previous study conducted by Butera et al. (2005) "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The host immune response plays an important role in viral clearance in patients who are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and are treated with interferon and ribavirin. Activation of the immune system involves the release of pro and anti-inflammatory molecules that can be measured in plasma samples. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between pretreatment plasma levels of chemokines and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (sTNF-R) and the virological response in treated patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Forty-one chronically-infected HCV patients that were being treated with interferon-α (IFN-α) plus ribavirin were included in the study. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected and pretreatment plasma levels of chemokine CCL2, CCL3, CCL11, CCL24, chemokine CXCL9, CXCL10, sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2 were measured. The virological response was assessed at treatment week 12, at the end of treatment and 24 weeks after treatment. Pretreatment CXCL10 levels were significantly higher in patients without an early virological response (EVR) or sustained virological response (SVR) compared to responders [512.9 pg/mL vs. 179.1 pg/mL (p = 0.011) and 289.9 pg/mL vs. 142.7 pg/mL (p = 0.045), respectively]. The accuracy of CXCL10 as a predictor of the absence of EVR and SVR was 0.79 [confidence interval (CI) 95%: 0.59-0.99] and 0.69 (CI 95%: 0.51-0.87), respectively. Pretreatment plasma levels of the other soluble inflammatory markers evaluated were not associated with a treatment response. Pretreatment CXCL10 levels were predictive of both EVR and SVR to IFN-α and ribavirin and may be useful in the evaluation of candidates for therapy.
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 02/2011; 106(1):38-43. DOI:10.1590/S0074-02762011000100006 · 1.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Persistently high serum levels of soluble tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 2 (sTNFR2) have been observed in septic shock and many inflammatory diseases. However, its origin and regulation during these pathological processes are still largely unknown. In this study, murine bone marrow (BM) chimeras selectively expressing TNFR2 on either BM-derived or non-BM-derived cells were generated and challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results show that TNFR2 expression on non-BM-derived cells is crucial for both the sensitivity of mice to LPS and the downregulation of sTNFR2 in serum. Most importantly, sTNFR2 was released from both BM- and non-BM-derived cells. Non-BM TNFR1 expression influenced the sensitivity of mice to LPS challenge but not the level of serum sTNFR2. These results provide the first in vivo evidence for the origin and regulation of sTNFR2 in serum and could aid in the development of novel anti-TNF strategies against septic shock.
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