Effect on mortality and virological response of delaying antiretroviral therapy initiation in children receiving tuberculosis treatment.
ABSTRACT To estimate the effect of delaying antiretroviral treatment (ART) for 15, 30, or 60 days after tuberculosis (TB) treatment initiation on mortality and virological suppression.
Cohort of 573 ART-naive HIV-infected children initiated on TB treatment at an outpatient clinic in South Africa between April 2004 and March 2008.
Hazard ratios for mortality and viral suppression were estimated using marginal structural models and multivariate Cox models, respectively.
During follow-up (median 9.64 months), 37 HIV-infected children died after a median of 62 days of TB treatment. ART was initiated in 461 children at a median of 17 days after TB treatment initiation, 415 (90%) achieved viral suppression. The hazard ratios of death for initiating ART more than 15, more than 30, or more than 60 days of TB treatment compared with initiating within 15, 30 and 60 days, respectively, were 0.82 (95% CI: 0.48, 1.41), 0.86 (95% CI: 0.46, 1.60), and 1.32 (95% CI: 0.55, 3.16). Hazard ratios for analysis restricted to severely immunosuppressed children were: 0.92 (95% CI: 0.51, 1.63), 1.08 (95% CI: 0.56, 2.08), and 2.23 (95% CI: 0.85, 5.80), respectively. Hazard ratios for viral suppression were 0.98 (95% CI: 0.76, 1.26), 0.95, (95% CI: 0.73, 1.23), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.15), respectively and did not change with restriction to children severely immunosuppressed.
In this observational study, we found that delaying ART for 2 months or more in children diagnosed with TB may be associated with poorer virological response and increased mortality, particularly in children with severe immunosuppression. These findings should be confirmed in a randomized controlled trial.
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ABSTRACT: Data on HIV/TB co-infection in children are still lacking. There are on-going large clinical trials on the prevention and treatment of TB/HIV infection in children that hopefully will help to guide an evidence-based clinical practice in both resource-rich and resource-limited settings.HIV is the top and tuberculosis is the second leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, with an estimated 8.7 million incident cases of tuberculosis and 2.5 million new HIV infections annually. The World Health Organization estimates that HIV prevalence among children with tuberculosis, in countries with moderate to high prevalence, ranges from 10 to 60%. The mechanisms promoting susceptibility of people with HIV to tuberculosis disease are incompletely understood, being likely caused by multifactorial processes.BMC Infectious Diseases 01/2014; 14 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S5. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-14-S1-S5 · 2.56 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
Article: [Childhood tuberculosis.][Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Childhood TB is an indication of failing TB control in the community. It allows disease persistence in the population. Mortality and morbidity due to TB is high in children. Moreover, HIV co-infection and multidrug-resistant diseases are as frequent in children as in adults. Infection is more frequent in younger children. Disease risk after primary infection is greatest in infants younger than 2years. In case of exposure, evidence of infection can be obtained using the tuberculin skin test (TST) or an interferon-gamma assay (IGRA). There is no evidence to support the use of IGRA over TST in young children. TB suspicion should be confirmed whenever possible, using new available tools, particularly in case of pulmonary and lymph node TB. Induced sputum, nasopharyngeal aspiration and fine needle aspiration biopsy provide a rapid and definitive diagnosis of mycobacterial infection in a large proportion of patients. Analysis of paediatric samples revealed higher sensitivity and specificity values of molecular techniques in comparison with the ones originated from adults. Children require higher drugs dosages than adults. Short courses of steroids are associated with TB treatment in case of respiratory distress, bronchoscopic desobstruction is proposed for severe airways involvement and antiretroviral therapy is mandatory in case of HIV infection. Post-exposure prophylaxis in children is a highly effective strategy to reduce the risk of TB disease. The optimal therapy for treatment of latent infection with a presumably multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain is currently not known.Revue de Pneumologie Clinique 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pneumo.2014.03.006 · 0.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected infants reduces mortality and opportunistic infections including tuberculosis (TB). However, young HIV-infected children remain at high risk of TB disease following mycobacterial infection. We document the spectrum of TB disease in HIV-infected children <2 years of age on ART. Methods Retrospective cohort study; records of children <2 years of age initiating routine ART at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Cape Town, January 2003-December 2010 were reviewed. Clinical data at ART initiation (baseline) and TB episodes after ART initiation, to June 2012, were recorded. TB immune reconstitution syndrome (TB-IRIS) and incident TB were defined as TB diagnosed within 3 months, and >3 months after, ART initiation respectively. Baseline characteristics were compared in children with TB-IRIS and those with incident TB. Results In 494 children, median follow-up time on ART was 10.7 months. Fifty-five TB treatment episodes occurred after ART initiation: 23 (42%) TB-IRIS (incidence 21.9/100 person years (py)) and 32 (58%) incident TB (incidence 3.9/100 py). Children with TB-IRIS and those with incident TB had similar baseline characteristics. Eight of 10 cases of extrapulmonary TB were severe: 4 IRIS (2 meningitis, 1 disseminated, 1 pericarditis) and 4 incident cases (1 each miliary, meningitis, pericarditis and spinal). Fifty-one children (10%) died (mortality rate 5.96/100 py). Starting ART at <1 year of age approached significance as a risk factor for TB-IRIS (adjusted OR (AOR) 8.64, p=0.06); weight-for-age Z score <-2 predicted death (AOR 6.37, p<0.001). Conclusions Severe TB manifestations were observed among young HIV-infected children on ART.Archives of Disease in Childhood 06/2014; 99(11). DOI:10.1136/archdischild-2013-305509 · 2.91 Impact Factor