Necrotizing Fasciitis

Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Georgia, Atlanta, USA.
Internal Medicine (Impact Factor: 0.97). 01/2010; 49(12):1051-7. DOI: 10.2169/internalmedicine.49.2964
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a necrotizing soft tissue infection that can cause rapid local tissue destruction, necrosis and life-threatening severe sepsis. Predisposing conditions for NF include diabetes, malignancy, alcohol abuse, and chronic liver and kidney diseases. NF is classified into two categories (types 1 and 2) based on causative microorganisms. The initial clinical picture of NF mimics that of cellulitis or erysipelas, including fever, pain, tenderness, swelling and erythema. The cardinal manifestations of NF are severe pain at onset out of proportion to local findings, hemorrhagic bullae and/or vital sign abnormality. In such cases, NF should be strongly suspected and immediate surgical intervention should be considered, along with broad-spectrum antimicrobials and general supportive measures, regardless of the findings of imaging tests.

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    ABSTRACT: Necrotizing soft tissue infections are a rare but potentially fatal condition of the soft tissues caused by virulent, toxin-producing bacteria. In the United States, there is an estimated annual incidence of 0.04 cases per 1000 annually, but previous estimates of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention had the incidence at 500 to 1500 cases yearly. Early reports of mortality were variable with rates ranging from 46 to 76% but outcomes have been improving over time. The National Hospital Discharge Survey was analyzed to study current trends in the demographics, incidence, use, and mortality of patients diagnosed with necrotizing soft tissue infections. The authors analyzed the 1999, 2002, and 2007 National Hospital Discharge Survey by using a sampling weighting method. A total of 13,648 cases of necrotizing soft tissue infections were identified in 2007.This represents an increase from 12,153 cases in 2002 and 6612 cases in 1999. In the 9 years from 1999 to 2007 the gross incidence of necrotizing soft tissue infections more than doubled. Hospital stay was essentially unchanged within study years, at 16 days. Mean age increased from approximately 50 years in 1999 to 54 years in 2007. Further, mortality went from 10.45% in 1999 to 9.75% in the 2007 survey. The population-adjusted incidence rate increased 91% in the studied years. Rising use of immunosupression, exponential growth in the incidence of obesity, and type 2 diabetes could be a major contributing factor. The mortality rate is far below the rate in reports published from as early as 20 years ago, and at 9.75% compares with modern case series, but is a more accurate measure of mortality in this condition.
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    ABSTRACT: Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a rare, rapidly progressive and potentially fatal soft-tissue infection characterized by widespread severe infection of the deep soft tissue, including fascia. Predisposing conditions for NF include diabetes, malignancy, obesity, and chronic liver disease. Patients with suspected NF should be empirically and immediately managed with broad-spectrum antibiotics covering the commonly suspected organisms. And surgical debridement is the mainstay of treatment of NF. We experienced a very rare case of NF with 33-year-old healthy woman who presented with high fever, erythema, edema, and pustule on upper abdomen one day after cesarean section. NF was strongly suspected and immediate surgical intervention and broad spectrum antibiotics were used. We report it with a brief review of literatures.
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