The androgen derivative 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha and lipopolysaccharide induced inflammatory response in human endothelial cells and in mice aorta.
ABSTRACT An increasing body of evidence suggests that testosterone may exert beneficial effects against the development of atherosclerosis. These effects are thought to be the consequence of its conversion into estradiol and the activation of the estrogen receptors; however a direct role of androgens, such as dihydrotestosterone, has also been proposed. More recently, it has been shown that the transformation of the dihydrotestosterone to 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol (3alpha-diol) and 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol (3beta-Adiol), generates two molecules unable to bind the androgen receptor, but with a high affinity for the estrogen receptors (ERs) in particular the beta isoform. As the actions of testosterone may result from the balance between androgenic and estrogenic molecules originating from its catabolism, we investigated the effects of the 3beta-Adiol on inflammatory responses in vitro in human endothelial cells and ex vivo in mice aortas.
3beta-Adiol reverts the pro-inflammatory gene expression pattern induced by TNF-alpha in HUVECs as determined by a cDNA microrray approach. Q-real-time PCR and protein array approaches confirmed that TNF-alpha-induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 as well as MCP-1 and IL-6 induction was affected upon 3beta-Adiol pre-incubation. ICI 182780, an estrogen receptor antagonist and R,R-THC, an estrogen receptor beta antagonist, counteracted the effect of 3beta-Adiol while bicalutamide, an androgen receptor antagonist, had minor effects. 3beta-Adiol exerted a similar action on macrophages. Finally in castrated male mice, 3beta-Adiol significantly counteracted the LPS mediated mRNA induction of IL-6, ELAM-1and PECAM-1 in the aortas.
3beta-Adiol reverts in vitro the TNF-alpha and LPS induced pro-inflammatory activation of endothelial cells and macrophages. 3beta-Adiol in vivo modulates the inflammatory response induced by LPS in the arterial vascular wall.
- SourceAvailable from: Alberico L Catapano[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An increasing body of evidence suggests that testosterone may exert beneficial effects on the development of atherosclerosis. It was suggested that testosterone may act after conversion into estradiol and activation of the estrogen receptors; however, a direct role of androgens on the vascular wall has been proposed. We investigated the effects of dihydrotestosterone on the proinflammatory response observed in human endothelial cells. Human endothelial cells isolated from umbilical cords were incubated with lipopolysaccharide or TNFalpha in the presence or absence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). mRNA and cellular proteins were processed for gene expression studies, and transient transfection experiments were performed to investigate molecular mechanisms involved in the effects observed. These studies took place at the Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. Lipopolysaccharide and TNFalpha induced VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 mRNA and protein expression, as detected by real-time quantitative PCR, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and confocal microscopy, but this effect was inhibited when cells were incubated with DHT. In addition, DHT inhibited mRNA expression of IL-6, MCP-1, CD40, TLR4, PAI-1, and Cox-2 and the release of cytokines and chemokines such as GRO, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and TNF. The DHT effect was counteracted by bicalutamide, an antagonist of the androgen receptor. Furthermore, when cells were cotransfected with a Cox-2 promoter or a 3X-NF-kappaB luciferase reporter vector and a plasmid expressing the human androgen receptor, DHT treatment inhibited the increase of the luciferase activity observed with TNFalpha. DHT could positively regulate endothelial function through the control of the inflammatory response mediated by nuclear factor-kappaB in endothelial cells.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 03/2006; 91(2):546-54. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lower circulating testosterone concentrations are associated with metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, carotid intima-media thickness, and aortic and lower limb arterial disease in men. However, it is unclear whether lower testosterone levels predict major cardiovascular events. We examined whether lower serum testosterone was an independently significant risk factor for symptomatic cerebrovascular events in older men. This was a prospective observational study with median follow-up of 3.5 yr. Community-dwelling, stroke-free older men were studied. A total of 3443 men at least 70 yr of age participated in the study. Baseline serum total testosterone, SHBG, and LH were assayed. Free testosterone was calculated using mass action equations. Incident stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) was recorded. A first stroke or TIA occurred in 119 men (3.5%). Total and free testosterone concentrations in the lowest quartiles (<11.7 nmol/liter and <222 pmol/liter) were associated with reduced event-free survival (P = 0.014 and P = 0.01, respectively). After adjustment including age, waist-hip ratio, waist circumference, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and medical comorbidity, lower total testosterone predicted increased incidence of stroke or TIA (hazard ratio = 1.99; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-2.99). Lower free testosterone was also associated (hazard ratio = 1.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-2.48), whereas SHBG and LH were not independently associated with incident stroke or TIA. In older men, lower total testosterone levels predict increased incidence of stroke or TIA after adjusting for conventional risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Men with low-normal testosterone levels had increased risk. Further studies are warranted to determine whether interventions that raise circulating testosterone levels might prevent cerebrovascular disease in men.The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 04/2009; 94(7):2353-9. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are endowed with cardiovascular protective activities. In addition to their role in reverse cholesterol transport, HDL exert several beneficial effects on endothelial cells, including the induction of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and prostacyclin release, and the control of the immune and inflammatory response. To identify possible mechanisms involved in these effects we investigated the modulation of the expression of acute phase proteins of the pentraxin superfamily, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid P component protein (SAP), and the long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) by HDL in human endothelial cells. HDL induced PTX3 mRNA expression and protein release, whereas no effect was observed on CRP and SAP expression. This effect was mainly dependent on the activation of the lysosphingolipids receptors-PI3K/Akt axis and was mimicked by sphingosine 1 phosphate and other S1P mimetics. This observation was confirmed in vivo; indeed an increased expression of PTX3 mRNA was detected in the aorta of transgenic mice overexpressing human apoA-I, compared to apoA-I knock-out mice. Furthermore, plasma levels of PTX3 significantly increased in C57BL/6 mice injected with HDL. These data suggest that part of the atheroprotective effects of HDL could result from the modulation of molecules that act as sensors of the immunoinflammatory balance in the vascular wall.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 06/2008; 28(5):925-31. · 6.34 Impact Factor