Physical activity and mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.
ABSTRACT Regular physical activity undoubtedly has many health benefits for all age groups. In the past decade, researchers and clinicians have begun to focus their attention on whether physical activity also can improve health outcomes of older adults who experience mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. This ongoing question is gaining relevance in light of the aging of the world population and with it the rise of age-related conditions, such as cognitive impairment. Not surprisingly, physical activity is among the potential protective lifestyle factors mentioned when strategies to delay or prevent dementia are discussed. The first large-scale multidomain intervention trials are under way to put this to the test. This review aims to give an overview of recent trials of physical activity in patients with MCI or dementia.
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ABSTRACT: Exercise training for patients with Alzheimer disease combined with teaching caregivers how to manage behavioral problems may help decrease the frailty and behavioral impairment that are often prevalent in patients with Alzheimer disease. To determine whether a home-based exercise program combined with caregiver training in behavioral management techniques would reduce functional dependence and delay institutionalization among patients with Alzheimer disease. Randomized controlled trial of 153 community-dwelling patients meeting National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria for Alzheimer disease, conducted between June 1994 and April 1999. Patient-caregiver dyads were randomly assigned to the combined exercise and caregiver training program, Reducing Disability in Alzheimer Disease (RDAD), or to routine medical care (RMC). The RDAD program was conducted in the patients' home over 3 months. Physical health and function (36-item Short-Form Health Survey's [SF-36] physical functioning and physical role functioning subscales and Sickness Impact Profile's Mobility subscale), and affective status (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Cornell Depression Scale for Depression in Dementia). At 3 months, in comparison with the routine care patients, more patients in the RDAD group exercised at least 60 min/wk (odds ratio [OR], 2.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-6.39; P =.01) and had fewer days of restricted activity (OR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.08-8.95; P<.001). Patients in the RDAD group also had improved scores for physical role functioning compared with worse scores for patients in the RMC group (mean difference, 19.29; 95% CI, 8.75-29.83; P<.001). Patients in the RDAD group had improved Cornell Depression Scale for Depression in Dementia scores while the patients in the RMC group had worse scores (mean difference, -1.03; 95% CI, -0.17 to -1.91; P =.02). At 2 years, the RDAD patients continued to have better physical role functioning scores than the RMC patients (mean difference, 10.89; 95% CI, 3.62-18.16; P =.003) and showed a trend (19% vs 50%) for less institutionalization due to behavioral disturbance. For patients with higher depression scores at baseline, those in the RDAD group improved significantly more at 3 months on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (mean difference, 2.21; 95% CI, 0.22-4.20; P =.04) and maintained that improvement at 24 months (mean difference, 2.14; 95% CI, 0.14-4.17; P =.04). Exercise training combined with teaching caregivers behavioral management techniques improved physical health and depression in patients with Alzheimer disease.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 10/2003; 290(15):2015-22. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Because no effective curative approaches are available, preventive approaches in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are needed. We present the design of the ongoing Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT) Study. Several previous studies suggested that many factors may be involved in the occurrence of AD at late ages. Because of the probable multifactorial nature of AD, it seems logical to initiate multidomain interventions to examine their potential synergistic effects. The MAPT Study aims to evaluate the efficacy of a multidomain intervention (nutritional, physical, and cognitive training) and omega 3 treatment in the prevention of cognitive decline in frail elderly persons aged 70 years or over. The study also collects imaging and biological data that could be used in future AD prevention and treatment trials. The MAPT Study is a 3-year, randomized, controlled trial conducted by university hospital practitioners specializing in memory disorders in four French cities (Bordeaux, Limoges, Montpellier, and Toulouse). The study plans to enroll 1200 frail elderly subjects on the basis of at least one of the following criteria: subjective memory complaint spontaneously expressed to a general practitioner, limitation in one instrumental activity of daily living (IADL), and slow walking speed. To demonstrate the protective effect of interventions, subjects are randomized into one of the following four groups: omega 3 alone, multidomain intervention alone, omega 3 plus multidomain intervention, or placebo (n = 300 each). The principal outcome measure is a change in cognitive function at 3 years, as determined by the Grober and Buschke Test. The MAPT Study is the first preventive trial involving multidomain interventions. Final results should be available in 2013.Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 04/2009; 5(2):114-21. · 5.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Loss of motor function is a common consequence of aging, but little is known about the factors that predict idiopathic motor decline. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that late-life social activity is related to the rate of change in motor function in old age. Longitudinal cohort study with a mean follow-up of 4.9 years with 906 persons without stroke, Parkinson disease, or dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. At baseline, participants rated the frequency of their current participation in common social activities from which a summary measure of social activity was derived. The main outcome measure was annual change in a composite measure of global motor function, based on 9 measures of muscle strength and 9 motor performances. Mean (SD) social activity score at baseline was 2.6 (0.58), with higher scores indicating more frequent participation in social activities. In a generalized estimating equation model, controlling for age, sex, and education, global motor function declined by approximately 0.05 U/y (estimate, 0.016; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.057 to 0.041 [P = .02]). Each 1-point decrease in social activity was associated with approximately a 33% more rapid rate of decline in motor function (estimate, 0.016; 95% CI, 0.003 to 0.029 [P = .02]). The effect of each 1-point decrease in the social activity score at baseline on the rate of change in global motor function was the same as being approximately 5 years older at baseline (age estimate, -0.003; 95% CI, -0.004 to -0.002 [P<.001]). Furthermore, this amount of motor decline per year was associated with a more than 40% increased risk of death (hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.30 to 1.60) and a 65% increased risk of incident Katz disability (hazard ratio, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.48 to 1.83). The association of social activity with the rate of global motor decline did not vary along demographic lines and was unchanged (estimate, 0.025; 95% CI, 0.005 to 0.045 [P = .01]) after controlling for potential confounders including late-life physical and cognitive activity, disability, global cognition depressive symptoms, body composition, and chronic medical conditions. Less frequent participation in social activities is associated with a more rapid rate of motor function decline in old age.Archives of internal medicine 06/2009; 169(12):1139-46. · 11.46 Impact Factor