Physical activity and mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.
ABSTRACT Regular physical activity undoubtedly has many health benefits for all age groups. In the past decade, researchers and clinicians have begun to focus their attention on whether physical activity also can improve health outcomes of older adults who experience mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia. This ongoing question is gaining relevance in light of the aging of the world population and with it the rise of age-related conditions, such as cognitive impairment. Not surprisingly, physical activity is among the potential protective lifestyle factors mentioned when strategies to delay or prevent dementia are discussed. The first large-scale multidomain intervention trials are under way to put this to the test. This review aims to give an overview of recent trials of physical activity in patients with MCI or dementia.
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Regular exercise induces recurrent increases in cerebrovascular perfusion. In peripheral arteries, such episodic increases in perfusion are responsible for improvement in arterial function and health. We examined the hypothesis that exercise during water immersion augments cerebral blood flow velocity compared to intensity-matched land-based exercise. METHODS: Fifteen normotensive participants were recruited (26±4yrs, 24.3±1.9kg/m). We continuously assessed mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), stroke volume, oxygen consumption and blood flow velocities through the middle and posterior cerebral arteries before, during and after 20-min bouts of water- and land-based stepping exercise of matched intensity. The order in which the exercise conditions were performed was randomized between subjects. Water-based exercise was performed in 30°C water to the level of the right atrium. RESULTS: The water- and land-based exercise bouts were closely matched for oxygen consumption [13.3ml.kg.min (95% CI=12.2, 14.6) vs. 13.5ml.kg.min (95% CI=12.1, 14.8); P=0.89] and HR [95bpm (95% CI=90, 101) vs. 96bpm (95% CI=91, 102); P=0.65]. Compared with land-based exercise, water-based exercise induced an increase in middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity [74cm/s (95% CI=66, 81) vs. 67cm/s (95% CI=60, 74) P<0.001], posterior cerebral artery blood flow velocity [47cm/s (95% CI=40, 53) vs. 43cm/s (95% CI=37, 49) P<0.001], MAP [106mmHg (95% CI=100, 111) vs. 101mmHg (95% CI=95, 106) P<0.001] and partial pressure of expired CO2 (P≤0.001). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that water-based exercise augments cerebrovascular blood flow, relative to land-based exercise of a similar intensity, in healthy humans.Medicine and science in sports and exercise 06/2014; · 4.48 Impact Factor
- Journal of Gerontological Nursing 12/2012; 38(12):10-1. · 0.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There has been increasing interest in the influence of diet on cognition in the elderly. This study examined the cross-sectional association between dietary patterns and cognition in a sample of 249 people aged 65-90 years with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Two dietary patterns; whole and processed food; were identified using factor analysis from a 107-item; self-completed Food Frequency Questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses showed that participants in the highest tertile of the processed food pattern score were more likely to have poorer cognitive functioning; in the lowest tertile of executive function (OR 2.55; 95% CI: 1.08-6.03); as assessed by the Cambridge Cognitive Examination. In a group of older people with MCI; a diet high in processed foods was associated with some level of cognitive impairment.Nutrients 01/2012; 4(11):1542-51. · 3.15 Impact Factor