Vitamin D supplementation of Canadian infants: practices of Montreal mothers.
ABSTRACT Health policy in North America advocates that all breastfed infants receive a vitamin D supplement of 400 IU per day for the primary prevention of rickets. Despite this recommendation, rickets still occurs in Canada. It is not known whether vitamin D deficiency in the Canadian population is solely attributable to inadequacies in vitamin supplementation. Thus, the evaluation of current practices, including awareness and compliance with recommendations, is clearly needed. The objective of this study was to describe the vitamin D supplementation practices of mothers of newborns living in the Montreal area. This was a cross-sectional telephone survey of 343 mothers delivering a healthy term infant from December 2007 to May 2008 at the Royal Victoria Hospital (Montreal, Que.). Ninety percent of all mothers breastfed their infants during the first 6 months; 53% did so exclusively. Of mothers exclusively breastfeeding, 74% reported meeting the Health Canada recommendation. The main reason for not adhering to the recommendation was the assumption by mothers who began to feed fortified formula (400 IU.L-1) that supplementation was no longer necessary. Fifty percent of infants receiving mixed feedings without supplementation prior to 6 months did not achieve the recommended intake. Receiving advice about supplementation and the higher education of mothers were significant positive determinants of supplementation practices. This work identified infants consuming mixed feedings and those consuming only formula in the first 6 months as groups at high risk for not meeting the recommended 400 IU.day-1 of vitamin D. Therefore there may still be gaps in knowledge regarding vitamin D supplementation.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentrations and sunshine exposure in 61 term, exclusively breast-fed infants younger than 6 months of age was investigated. Sunshine exposure was quantitated using a sunshine and clothing diary, which was verified by infant-adapted ultraviolet dosimetry. By multiple regression techniques, infant serum 25-OHD concentrations were significantly related to UV exposure and maternal serum 25-OHD concentrations. Infant 25-OHD concentrations correlated with sunshine exposure in infants whose mothers had low (less than 35 ng/ml) or high (greater than 35 ng/ml) serum concentrations of 25-OHD (r = 0.70, P less than 0.001 and r = 0.53, P = 0.004, respectively). Estimates were made to determine sunshine exposure conditions necessary to maintain serum 25-OHD concentrations above the lower limit of the normal range (11 ng/ml). A conservative estimate would be 30 minutes per week wearing only a diaper or 2 hours a week fully clothed without a hat.Journal of Pediatrics 10/1985; 107(3):372-6. · 4.04 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Eighteen term, healthy, appropriate for gestational age, breast-fed infants were studied in a double-blind prospective study to determine whether or not supplemental vitamin D affected bone mineralization. All patients were from a single, private pediatric practice. Nine infants were randomly assigned to a vitamin D supplement of 400 IU/day and nine infants to a placebo. By 12 weeks of age, infants receiving placebo had a significant decrease in bone mineralization and in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations compared to the vitamin D-supplemented group. It is not known whether or not the increased BMC at 12 weeks of age in vitamin D-supplemented breast-fed infants is of ultimate value. Supplemental vitamin D may be necessary for optimal bone mineralization in term breast-fed infants. A longer follow-up study and additional analyses are required to make conclusive statements.Journal of Pediatrics 06/1981; 98(5):696-701. · 4.04 Impact Factor
- Journal of Pediatrics 07/1982; 100(6):919-22. · 4.04 Impact Factor