Vitamin D supplementation of Canadian infants: practices of Montreal mothers.
ABSTRACT Health policy in North America advocates that all breastfed infants receive a vitamin D supplement of 400 IU per day for the primary prevention of rickets. Despite this recommendation, rickets still occurs in Canada. It is not known whether vitamin D deficiency in the Canadian population is solely attributable to inadequacies in vitamin supplementation. Thus, the evaluation of current practices, including awareness and compliance with recommendations, is clearly needed. The objective of this study was to describe the vitamin D supplementation practices of mothers of newborns living in the Montreal area. This was a cross-sectional telephone survey of 343 mothers delivering a healthy term infant from December 2007 to May 2008 at the Royal Victoria Hospital (Montreal, Que.). Ninety percent of all mothers breastfed their infants during the first 6 months; 53% did so exclusively. Of mothers exclusively breastfeeding, 74% reported meeting the Health Canada recommendation. The main reason for not adhering to the recommendation was the assumption by mothers who began to feed fortified formula (400 IU.L-1) that supplementation was no longer necessary. Fifty percent of infants receiving mixed feedings without supplementation prior to 6 months did not achieve the recommended intake. Receiving advice about supplementation and the higher education of mothers were significant positive determinants of supplementation practices. This work identified infants consuming mixed feedings and those consuming only formula in the first 6 months as groups at high risk for not meeting the recommended 400 IU.day-1 of vitamin D. Therefore there may still be gaps in knowledge regarding vitamin D supplementation.
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ABSTRACT: Background Vitamin D is essential for bone mineralization, particularly in premature infants. For nearly 20 years, Quebec has offered a program of free vitamin D supplements via its public medication insurance plan Régie de l¿Assurance Maladie du Québec (RAMQ). The objective of this study is to evaluate the number of preterm infants that obtained at least one bottle (50 doses) of vitamin D supplement through this program and to determine if uptake varied by gestational age.Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of preterm infants covered by RAMQ and born from 1998 to 2008; all infants had 1 year of follow-up data regarding supplement use. Data were extracted from the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort, a linked administrative database and were stratified by early (<34 weeks) or late gestational age premature infants. The number of infants obtaining supplements was the primary outcome and their characteristics were compared across gestational age groups. Predictors for participation (obtaining at least 1 bottle) or adherence (2 or more bottles) were identified via logistic regression (GEE).Results10288 infants were eligible; the percentage exposed to vitamin D was 24.5% (37.4%- early; 20.7%-late preterm infants, p¿<¿0.001). The median number of bottles obtained was 2 for early and 1 for late preterms. For all premature infants, there was an apparent geometric decline in the infants obtaining subsequent bottles of supplements over the 12 month period. Additionally, there was a significant decline in program participation over time (OR¿=¿0.90/year, 95%CI: 0.89-0.90) regardless of gestational age. Older or more educated mothers were positive predictors for participation. A prescription from a pediatrician significantly increased the odds of obtaining the supplement.Conclusion Early preterm infants were more likely to obtain the supplement post-discharge; uptake was low and decreased with time for both age categories. Specifically, targeting late preterm infants and young mothers with less education could improve vitamin D uptake.BMC Pediatrics 11/2014; 14(1):291. DOI:10.1186/s12887-014-0291-6 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although vitamin D (vD) deficiency is common in breastfed infants and their mothers during pregnancy and lactation, a standardized global comparison is lacking. We studied the prevalence and risk factors for vD deficiency using a standardized protocol in a cohort of breastfeeding mother-infant pairs, enrolled in the Global Exploration of Human Milk Study, designed to examine longitudinally the effect of environment, diet and culture. Mothers planned to provide breast milk for at least three months post-partum and were enrolled at four weeks postpartum in Shanghai, China (n = 112), Cincinnati, Ohio (n = 119), and Mexico City, Mexico (n = 113). Maternal serum 25(OH)D was measured by radioimmunoassay (<50 nmol/L was categorized as deficient). Serum 25(OH)D was measured in a subset of infants (35 Shanghai, 47 Cincinnati and 45 Mexico City) seen at 26 weeks of age during fall and winter seasons. Data collected prospectively included vD supplementation, season and sun index (sun exposure × body surface area exposed while outdoors). Differences and factors associated with vD deficiency were evaluated using appropriate statistical analysis. vD deficiency in order of magnitude was identified in 62%, 52% and 17% of Mexican, Shanghai and Cincinnati mothers, respectively (p < 0.001). In regression analysis, vD supplementation (p < 0.01), obesity (p = 0.03), season (p = 0.001) and sites (p < 0.001) predicted maternal vD status. vD deficiency in order of magnitude was found in 62%, 28%, and 6% of Mexican, Cincinnati and Shanghai infants, respectively (p < 0.001). Season (p = 0.022), adding formula feeding (p < 0.001) and a higher sun index (p = 0.085) predicted higher infant vD status. vD deficiency appears to be a global problem in mothers and infants, though the prevalence in diverse populations may depend upon sun exposure behaviors and vD supplementation. Greater attention to maternal and infant vD status starting during pregnancy is warranted worldwide.Nutrients 02/2015; 7(2):1081-1093. DOI:10.3390/nu7021081 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AimThe aim of this study was to evaluate the uptake of a free vitamin D infant prescription programme and to determine the incidence of nutritional rickets. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of infants from Quebec, Canada, involving term infants born between 1998 and 2008 and covered by the public insurance programme. Data were extracted from the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort. Predictors of programme participation were identified through logistic regression. ResultsA total of 123018 infants were eligible, and the mean annual prevalence of supplemental vitamin D exposure was 17.95.6%. The median age for obtaining the first bottle was 36days and half only obtained one bottle of 50 doses. Mothers with higher socio-economic status, those who lived as a couple, older mothers or a prescription by a paediatrician significantly increased the odds of obtaining vitamin D. There was a decline in programme participation over time (OR 0.89/year, 95% CI=0.88-0.90). The incidence of rickets was 23.9 cases per 100000 live births, with an annual increase of 1.12 cases/year (95% CI=1.01-1.24). Conclusion Without educational measures, a free prescription programme for vitamin D failed to encourage participation or adherence. Moreover, participation decreased with time. New strategies, including educational support, need to be developed to increase vitamin D supplementation rates.Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway: 1992). Supplement 06/2014; 103(10). DOI:10.1111/apa.12727