The nuclear transactive response (TAR) DNA binding protein-43, TDP-43, is a major constituent of the ubiquitinated neuronal inclusions in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Missense mutations in TDP-43 have been associated with familial and sporadic ALS. Since TDP-43 immunoreactivity was also frequently observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains and elevated TDP-43 plasma levels were detected in a subset of AD patients, we sequenced the TDP-43 gene, TARDBP, in a well-documented group of AD patients (n=485). We observed one mutation in exon 3 (c.269C>T) predicting a p.Ala90Val substitution in two patients. One extra p.Ala90Val carrier was observed by sequencing exon 3 of an additional set of 254 AD patients. The mutation was absent from 604 control individuals. Allele and haplotype analysis using microsatellite markers suggested that the three patients might share a common founder. However, co-segregation of p.Ala90Val with AD could not be realized leaving its pathogenic unclear at this moment. Also, sequencing in 190 additional AD patients of TARDBP exon 6 in which pathogenic mutations have been reported in FTLD and ALS was negative. Further, genetic association analyses using five single nucleotide polymorphisms did not detect significant differences between AD patients and control individuals. In conclusion, the genetic contribution of TARDBP to AD was restricted to the rare mutation p.Ala90Val (3/739, 0.4%) of unclear pathogenic nature that affects the nuclear localization signal in TDP-43.
"Furthermore, the distribution of the TDP-43-positive aggregates is disease-specific with, for example, involvement of spinal cord motor neurons in ALS and a more widespread distribution in the brain in FTLD . Mutations in TARDBP are unique to ALS and are not found in other neurodegenerative disorders [28, 168, 192] with the exception of a small number of FTD cases [18, 23, 24, 34, 35, 38, 111, 145]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the aggregation of ubiquitinated proteins in affected motor neurons. Recent studies have identified several new molecular constituents of ALS-linked cellular aggregates, including FUS, TDP-43, OPTN, UBQLN2 and the translational product of intronic repeats in the gene C9ORF72. Mutations in the genes encoding these proteins are found in a subgroup of ALS patients and segregate with disease in familial cases, indicating a causal relationship with disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, these proteins are often detected in aggregates of non-mutation carriers and those observed in other neurodegenerative disorders, supporting a widespread role in neuronal degeneration. The molecular characteristics and distribution of different types of protein aggregates in ALS can be linked to specific genetic alterations and shows a remarkable overlap hinting at a convergence of underlying cellular processes and pathological effects. Thus far, self-aggregating properties of prion-like domains, altered RNA granule formation and dysfunction of the protein quality control system have been suggested to contribute to protein aggregation in ALS. The precise pathological effects of protein aggregation remain largely unknown, but experimental evidence hints at both gain- and loss-of-function mechanisms. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the molecular make-up, formation, and mechanism-of-action of protein aggregates in ALS. Further insight into protein aggregation will not only deepen our understanding of ALS pathogenesis but also may provide novel avenues for therapeutic intervention.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in TAR DNA-binding protein (TARDBP) are associated with heterogenic phenotypes, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, and Parkinson's disease. In this study, we investigated the presence of TARDBP mutations in a cohort of 429 Dutch patients with Parkinson's disease. Though we detected 1 silent mutation, p.S332S, no missense mutations were present in our cohort. Our findings, therefore, demonstrate that TARDBP mutations do not appear to contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease in The Netherlands.
Neurobiology of aging 10/2012; 34(5). DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2012.09.013 · 5.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disorder. A majority of cases manifest as a late onset sporadic form but genetically the disease is divided into familial cases and sporadic cases. The familial form is due to mutations in three major genes (amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene, presenilin1 (PSEN1) gene and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) gene). In contrast, many genetic and environmental factors may contribute to determining the sporadic AD form. Despite many years of research and great progress in the knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of AD, a full understanding of the etiology of the sporadic form is still not yet in reach. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) revealed the genetic complexity of the disease and recent studies suggested that epigenetic mechanisms may play an essential role in disease development. This review provides an overview of all the milestones in AD genetic research, as well as the new and promising approach, in order to better understand the genetic profile for predicting the risk of AD.
Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition) 01/2013; E5(1):167-177.
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