Protecting the next generation--eliminating perinatal HIV-1 infection.

New England Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 54.42). 06/2010; 362(24):2316-8. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMe1004406
Source: PubMed
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    HJOG. 01/2014; 13(2):40-44.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, women's disclosure of HIV-positive status to others may affect their use of services for preven-tion of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) of HIV and maternal and child health—including antenatal care, antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) for PMTCT, and skilled birth attendance. Methods: Using data from the Migori and AIDS Stigma Study conducted in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya, we compared the use of PMTCT and maternal health services for all women by HIV status and disclosure category (n = 390). Among HIV-infected women (n = 145), associations between disclosure of HIV-positive status and the use of services were further examined with bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: Women living with HIV who had not disclosed to anyone had the lowest levels of maternity and PMTCT service utilization. For example, only 21% of these women gave birth in a health facility, compared with 35% of HIV-negative women and 49% of HIV-positive women who had disclosed (P , 0.001). Among HIV-positive women, the effect of disclosure to anyone on ARV drug use [odds ratio (OR) = 5.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9 to 17.8] and facility birth (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.4 to 5.7) remained large and significant after adjusting for confounders. Disclosure to a male partner had a particularly strong effect on the use of ARVs for PMTCT (OR = 7.9; 95% CI: 3.7 to 17.1). Conclusions: HIV-positive status disclosure seems to be a complex yet critical factor for the use of PMTCT and maternal health services in this setting. The design of interventions to promote such disclosure must recognize the impact of HIV-related stigma on disclosure decisions and protect women's rights, autonomy, and safety.
    Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes 12/2014; 67(Supp 4):S235-42.
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    ABSTRACT: The last few years have witnessed a renewed commitment to HIV prevention. The evidence to support the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of new HIV infection in the form of Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among men who have sex with men, transgender, people who inject drugs, heterosexual men and women and HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, or treatment as prevention (TasP) for serodiscordant couples have also grown. The need to explore the possible use of ART for HIV prevention in Nigeria has become imperative in view of its high HIV burden and the current slow pace of effort to achieve the universal target of reducing its HIV incidence by 50%. While PrEP and TasP are welcome addendum to the existing HIV prevention armamentarium, it is still important to conduct a demonstration project to identify strategies that can facilitate access to PrEP and TasP taking cognizance of the peculiar local challenges with respect to ART and HIV prevention commodity access. The country has therefore drawn a roadmap for itself on how to introduce ART for use for HIV prevention as either PrEP or TasP. This paper discusses the three year national roadmap that would enable the country generated the needed scientific evidence as well as extensive community support for use of ART for HIV prevention in Nigeria. This process includes the conduct of modeling and formative studies, and the implementation of a 24 months demonstration project. The outcome of the demonstration project would inform plans for the scale up of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) access for population(s) at high risk for HIV infection in Nigeria.
    African Journal of Reproductive Health 09/2014; 18(3):127.


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Aug 29, 2014