Article

Coxsackievirus B3 infection activates the unfolded protein response and induces apoptosis through downregulation of p58IPK and activation of CHOP and SREBP1.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, The Providence Heart and Lung Institute, St Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Journal of Virology (Impact Factor: 4.65). 09/2010; 84(17):8446-59. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01416-09
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cardiomyocyte apoptosis is a hallmark of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis. We used cardiomyocytes and HeLa cells to explore the cellular response to CVB3 infection, with a focus on pathways leading to apoptosis. CVB3 infection triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and differentially regulated the three arms of the unfolded protein response (UPR) initiated by the proximal ER stress sensors ATF6a (activating transcription factor 6a), IRE1-XBP1 (X box binding protein 1), and PERK (PKR-like ER protein kinase). Upon CVB3 infection, glucose-regulated protein 78 expression was upregulated, and in turn ATF6a and XBP1 were activated via protein cleavage and mRNA splicing, respectively. UPR activity was further confirmed by the enhanced expression of UPR target genes ERdj4 and EDEM1. Surprisingly, another UPR-associated gene, p58(IPK), which often is upregulated during infections with other types of viruses, was downregulated at both mRNA and protein levels after CVB3 infection. These findings were observed similarly for uninfected Tet-On HeLa cells induced to overexpress ATF6a or XBP1. In exploring potential connections between the three UPR pathways, we found that the ATF6a-induced downregulation of p58(IPK) was associated with the activation of PKR (PERK) and the phosphorylation of eIF2alpha, suggesting that p58(IPK), a negative regulator of PERK and PKR, mediates cross-talk between the ATF6a/IRE1-XBP1 and PERK arms. Finally, we found that CVB3 infection eventually produced the induction of the proapoptoic transcription factor CHOP and the activation of SREBP1 and caspase-12. Taken together, these data suggest that CVB3 infection activates UPR pathways and induces ER stress-mediated apoptosis through the suppression of P58(IPK) and induction/activation of CHOP, SREBP1, and caspase-12.

0 Followers
 · 
179 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mammalian genome has evolved to encode a battery of mechanisms, to mitigate a progression in the life cycle of an invasive viral pathogen. Although apparently disadvantaged by their dependence on the host biosynthetic processes, an immensely faster rate of evolution provides viruses with an edge in this conflict. In this review, I have discussed the potential anti-virus activity of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), a well characterized effector of the cellular homeostatic response to an overloading of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein-folding capacity. IRE1, an ER-membrane-resident ribonuclease (RNase), upon activation catalyses regulated cleavage of select protein-coding and non-coding host RNAs, using an RNase domain which is homologous to that of the known anti-viral effector RNaseL. The latter operates as part of the Oligoadenylate synthetase OAS/RNaseL system of anti-viral defense mechanism. Protein-coding RNA substrates are differentially treated by the IRE1 RNase to either augment, through cytoplasmic splicing of an intron in the Xbp1 transcript, or suppress gene expression. This referred suppression of gene expression is mediated through degradative cleavage of a select cohort of cellular RNA transcripts, initiating the regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD) pathway. The review first discusses the anti-viral mechanism of the OAS/RNaseL system and evasion tactics employed by different viruses. This is followed by a review of the RIDD pathway and its potential effect on the stability of viral RNAs. I conclude with a comparison of the enzymatic activity of the two RNases followed by deliberations on the physiological consequences of their activation.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 06/2014; 5:292. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00292 · 3.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many virus infections and stresses can induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, a host self-defense mechanism against viral invasion and stress. During this event, viral and cellular gene expression is actively regulated and often encounters a switching of the translation initiation from cap-dependent to internal ribosome-entry sites (IRES)-dependent. This switching is largely dependent on the mRNA structure of the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) and on the particular stress stimuli. Picornaviruses and some other viruses contain IRESs within their 5' UTR of viral genome and employ an IRES-driven mechanism for translation initiation. Recently, a growing number of cellular genes involved in growth control, cell cycle progression and apoptosis were also found to contain one or more IRES within their long highly structured 5' UTRs. These genes initiate translation usually by a cap-dependent mechanism under normal physiological conditions; however, in certain environments, such as infection, starvation, and heat shock they shift translation initiation to an IRES-dependent modality. Although the molecular mechanism is not entirely understood, a number of studies have revealed that several cellular biochemical processes are responsible for the switching of translation initiation to IRES-dependent. These include the cleavage of translation initiation factors by viral and/or host proteases, phosphorylation (inactivation) of host factors for translation initiation, overproduction of homologous proteins of cap-binding protein eukaryotic initiation factors (eIF)4E, suppression of cap-binding protein eIF4E expression by specific microRNA, activation of enzymes for mRNA decapping, as well as others. Here, we summarize the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms for the switching of translation initiation, particularly for the proteins involved in cell survival and apoptosis in the ER stress pathways during viral infections.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 03/2012; 3:92. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2012.00092 · 3.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Myocarditis, 10/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-289-0

Preview

Download
6 Downloads
Available from