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IntroductionTo investigate the mechanism of action of tranexamic acid (TXA) in bleeding trauma patients, we examined the timing of its effect on mortality. We hypothesised that if TXA reduces mortality by decreasing blood loss, its effect should be greatest on the day of the injury when bleeding is most profuse. However, if TXA reduces mortality via an anti-inflammatory mechanism its effect should be greater over the subsequent days.Methods
Exploratory analysis, including per-protocol analyses, of data from the CRASH-2 trial, a randomised placebo controlled trial of the effect of TXA on mortality in 20,211 trauma patients with, or at risk of, significant bleeding. We examined hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause mortality, deaths due to bleeding and non-bleeding deaths, according to the day since injury. The CRASH-2 trial is registered as ISRCTN86750102 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00375258.ResultsThe effect of TXA on mortality is greatest for deaths occurring on the day of the injury (HR all-cause mortality =0.83, 0.73 to 0.93). This survival benefit is only evident in patients in whom treatment is initiated within 3 hours of their injury (HR ¿3 hours =0.78, 0.68 to 0.90; HR >3 hours =1.02, 0.76 to 1.36). Initiation of TXA treatment within 3 hours of injury reduced the hazard of death due to bleeding on the day of the injury by 28% (HR =0.72, 0.60 to 0.86). TXA treatment initiated beyond 3 hours of injury appeared to increase the hazard of death due to bleeding, although the estimates were imprecise.Conclusions
Early administration of tranexamic acid appears to reduce mortality primarily by preventing exsanguination on the day of the injury.
Critical care (London, England) 12/2014; 18(6):685. DOI:10.1186/s13054-014-0685-8
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Hemorrhage and coagulopathy remain major drivers of early preventable mortality in military and civilian trauma. The development of trauma-induced coagulopathy and hyperfibrinolysis is associated with poor outcomes. Interest in the use of tranexamic acid (TXA) in hemorrhaging patients as an antifibrinolytic agent has grown recently. Additionally, several reports describe immunomodulatory effects of TXA that may confer benefit independent of its antifibrinolytic actions. A large trial demonstrated a mortality benefit for early TXA administration in patients at risk for hemorrhage; however, questions remain about the applicability in developed trauma systems and the mechanism by which TXA reduces mortality. We describe here the rationale, design, and challenges of the Study of Tranexamic Acid during Air Medical Prehospital transport (STAAMP) trial. The primary objective is to determine the effect of prehospital TXA infusion during air medical transport on 30-day mortality in patients at risk of traumatic hemorrhage. This study is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial. The trial will enroll trauma patients with hypotension and tachycardia from 4 level I trauma center air medical transport programs. It includes a 2-phase intervention, with a prehospital and in-hospital phase to investigate multiple dosing regimens. The trial will also explore the effects of TXA on the coagulation and inflammatory response following injury. The trial will be conducted under exception for informed consent for emergency research and thus required an investigational new drug approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as well as a community consultation process. It was designed to address several existing knowledge gaps and research priorities regarding TXA use in trauma.
Prehospital Emergency Care 07/2014; 19(1). DOI:10.3109/10903127.2014.936635 · 1.81 Impact Factor
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