Foxp2 is expressed in the lung during mouse development. A monoclonal anti-mouse Foxp2 antibody was created to determine the expression pattern in the developing lung. Next, transcriptional control of two lung genes, CC10 and surfactant protein C (SPC) genes, by Foxp2 was investigated in H441 and A549 cells. Thirdly, expression patterns of Foxp2 and Foxf2 were compared in the developing lung. Finally, Foxp2 expression was determined in the Foxf2-null mice.
Immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization were applied to the sections of lungs in the developing embryos.
Monoclonal anti-Foxp2 antibody demonstrated that Foxp2 was expressed in the bronchial epithelium at E10.5 and its expression became restricted to the distal portion of the elongating bronchiolar epithelium and finally to type II alveolar epithelial cells around birth and in the adult. Foxp2 activated the SPC gene promoter in the presence of Nkx2.1 in A549 cells while it repressed the CC10 gene promoter in H441 cells. Next, the expression domains of the Foxp2 and Foxf2 were found to be exclusive in the lung. Finally, the expression of Foxp2 did not change in the lung of Foxf2-null mice.
The Foxp2 protein is expressed in the growing distal edge of airway epithelium. When the bronchiolus elongates, Foxp2 suppresses CC10 expression. When the lung alveolus is formed, Foxp2 modulates the Nkx2.1-mediated SPC expression in type II alveolar cells. Foxp2 and Foxf2 independently play distinct roles in the alveoli and the mesenchyme, respectively.
"Preparation of anti-AmCyan1 monoclonal antibody and immunofluorescent analysis Rat monoclonal anti-AmCyan1 antibody was made as described previously (Yang et al. 2010). Briefly, the AmCyan1 open reading frame was inserted into the EcoRI site of the pGEX-6P-1 vector. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thymus development is a complicated process that includes highly dynamic morphological changes and reciprocal tissue interactions between endoderm-derived epithelial cells of the anterior foregut and neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells. We generated and characterized a Tbx1-AmCyan1 reporter transgenic mouse to visualize thymus precursor cells during early embryonic development. In transgenic embryos, AmCyan1 fluorescence was specifically detected in the endoderm of the developing 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches and later in thymus epithelium until E14.5. Cells expressing AmCyan1 that were isolated based on AmCyan1 fluorescence expressed endodermal, thymic, and parathyroid markers, but they did not express neural crest or endothelial markers; these findings indicated that this transgenic mouse strain could be used to collect thymic or parathyroid precursor cells or both. We also showed that in nude mice, which exhibit defects in thymus development, the thymus precursors were clearly labeled with AmCyan1. In summary, these AmCyan1-fluorescent transgenic mice are useful for investigating early thymus development.
Transgenic Research 11/2012; 22(3). DOI:10.1007/s11248-012-9664-5 · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription factor forkhead box P2 (FOXP2) is believed to be important in the evolution of human speech. A mutation in its DNA-binding domain causes severe speech impairment. Humans have acquired two coding changes relative to the conserved mammalian sequence. Despite intense interest in FOXP2, it has remained an open question whether the human protein's DNA-binding specificity and chromatin localization are conserved. Previous in vitro and ChIP-chip studies have provided conflicting consensus sequences for the FOXP2-binding site. Using MITOMI 2.0 microfluidic affinity assays, we describe the binding site of FOXP2 and its affinity profile in base-specific detail for all substitutions of the strongest binding site. We find that human and chimp FOXP2 have similar binding sites that are distinct from previously suggested consensus binding sites. Additionally, through analysis of FOXP2 ChIP-seq data from cultured neurons, we find strong overrepresentation of a motif that matches our in vitro results and identifies a set of genes with FOXP2 binding sites. The FOXP2-binding sites tend to be conserved, yet we identified 38 instances of evolutionarily novel sites in humans. Combined, these data present a comprehensive portrait of FOXP2's-binding properties and imply that although its sequence specificity has been conserved, some of its genomic binding sites are newly evolved.
Nucleic Acids Research 04/2013; 41(12). DOI:10.1093/nar/gkt259 · 9.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Language disorders cover a wide range of conditions with heterologous and overlapping phenotypes and complex etiologies harboring both genetic and environmental influences. Genetic approaches including the identification of genes linked to speech and language phenotypes and the characterization of normal and aberrant functions of these genes have, in recent years, unraveled complex details of molecular and cognitive mechanisms and provided valuable insight into the biological foundations of language. Consistent with this approach, we have reviewed the functional aspects of allelic variants of genes which are currently known to be either causally associated with disorders of speech and language or impact upon the spectrum of normal language ability. We have also reviewed candidate genes associated with heritable speech and language disorders. In addition, we have evaluated language phenotypes and associated genetic components in developmental syndromes that, together with a spectrum of altered language abilities, manifest various phenotypes and offer details of multifactorial determinants of language function. Data from this review have revealed a predominance of regulatory networks involved in the control of differentiation and functioning of neurons, neuronal tracks and connections among brain structures associated with both cognitive and language faculties. Our findings, furthermore, have highlighted several multifactorial determinants in overlapping speech and language phenotypes. Collectively this analysis has revealed an interconnected developmental network and a close association of the language faculty with cognitive functions, a finding that has the potential to provide insight into linguistic hypotheses defining in particular, the contribution of genetic elements to and the modular nature of the language faculty.
Human Genetics 06/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00439-013-1317-0 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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