Distribution of ace-1R and resistance to carbamates and organophosphates in Anopheles gambiae s.s. populations from Côte d'Ivoire

Institut Pierre Richet, BP 47 Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.
Malaria Journal (Impact Factor: 3.49). 06/2010; 9:167. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-167
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The spread of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.s. is a critical issue for malaria vector control based on the use of insecticide-treated nets. Carbamates and organophosphates insecticides are regarded as alternatives or supplements to pyrethroids used in nets treatment. It is, therefore, essential to investigate on the susceptibility of pyrethroid resistant populations of An. gambiae s.s. to these alternative products.
In September 2004, a cross sectional survey was conducted in six localities in Côte d'Ivoire: Toumbokro, Yamoussoukro, Toumodi in the Southern Guinea savannah, Tiassalé in semi-deciduous forest, then Nieky and Abidjan in evergreen forest area. An. gambiae populations from these localities were previously reported to be highly resistant to pyrethroids insecticides. Anopheline larvae were collected from the field and reared to adults. Resistance/susceptibility to carbamates (0.4% carbosulfan, 0.1% propoxur) and organophosphates (0.4% chlorpyrifos-methyl, 1% fenitrothion) was assessed using WHO bioassay test kits for adult mosquitoes. Then, PCR assays were run to determine the molecular forms (M) and (S), as well as phenotypes for insensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE1) due to G119S mutation.
Bioassays showed carbamates (carbosulfan and propoxur) resistance in all tested populations of An. gambiae s.s. In addition, two out of the six tested populations (Toumodi and Tiassalé) were also resistant to organophosphates (mortality rates ranged from 29.5% to 93.3%). The M-form was predominant in tested samples (91.8%). M and S molecular forms were sympatric at two localities but no M/S hybrids were detected. The highest proportion of S-form (7.9% of An. gambiae identified) was in sample from Toumbokro, in the southern Guinea savannah. The G119S mutation was found in both M and S molecular forms with frequency from 30.9 to 35.2%.
This study revealed a wide distribution of insensitive acetylcholinesterase due to the G119S mutation in both M and S molecular forms of the populations of An. gambiae s.s. tested. The low cross-resistance between carbamates and organophosphates highly suggests involvement of other resistance mechanisms such as metabolic detoxification or F290V mutation.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l is a major concern to malaria vector control programmes. In West Africa, resistance is mainly due to target¿site insensitivity arising from a single point mutation. Metabolic-based resistance mechanisms have also been implicated and are currently being investigated in west Africa. The aim of this study is to better understand the origins of carbamate and organophosphate resistance in An. gambiae population from Atacora, Benin in West Africa.Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were reared from larvae collected in two districts (Kouandé and Tanguiéta) of the Atacora department. Mosquitoes were then exposed to WHO impregnated papers. Four impregnated papers were used: carbamates (0.1% bendiocarb, 0.1% propoxur) and organophosphates (0.25% pirimiphos methyl, 1% fenitrothion). PCR assays were run to determine the members of the An. gambiae complex, as well as phenotypes for insensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE1). Biochemical assays were also carried out to detect any increase in the activity of enzyme typically involved in insecticide metabolism (oxidase, esterase and glutathion-S-transferase).Results769 female of An. gambiae mosquitoes from Kouandé and Tanguiéta were exposed to bendiocarb, propoxur, pirimiphos methyl and fenitrothion. Bioassays showed resistance with low mortality to bendiocarb (78.57% to 80.17%), propoxur (77.21% to 89.77%), and fenitrothion (89.74% to 92.02%). On the other hand, the same populations of An. gambiae from Kouandé and Tanguiéta showed high susceptibility to pirimiphos methyl with recorded mortality of 99.02% and 100% respectively. The low rate of ace-1R allele frequency (3.75% among survivors and 0.48% among dead) added to the high proportion of homozygous susceptible specimens which survived the WHO bioassays (8/28), suggest that the ace-1 mutation could not entirely explain Anopheles gambiae resistance to carbamate and organophosphate. Biochemical assays suggest that resistance in this population is mediated by metabolic resistance with elevated level of GST, MFO and NSE compared to a susceptible strain An. gambiae Kisumu.Conclusions Anopheles gambiae populations resistance from Atacora is multifactorial and includes target-site mutation and metabolic mechanism. The co-implication of both resistance mechanisms in An. gambiae s.l may be a serious obstacle for the future success of malaria control operations based on LLINs and IRS.
    Parasites & Vectors 12/2014; 7(1):568. DOI:10.1186/PREACCEPT-1676019280144188 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Insecticide-treated wall lining (ITWL) is a new concept in malaria vector control. Some Anopheles gambiae populations in West Africa have developed resistance to all the main classes of insecticides. It needs to be demonstrated whether vector control can be improved or resistance managed when non-pyrethroid ITWL is used alone or together with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) against multiple insecticide-resistant vector populations. Methods Two experimental hut trials were carried out as proofs of concept to evaluate pirimiphos methyl (p-methyl)-treated plastic wall lining (WL) and net wall hangings (NWH) used alone and in combination with LLINs against multiple insecticide-resistant An. gambiae in Tiassalé, Côte d’Ivoire. Comparison was made to commercial deltamethrin WL and genotypes for kdr and ace-1R resistance were monitored. Results The kdr and ace-1R allele frequencies were 0.83 and 0.44, respectively. Anopheles gambiae surviving discriminating concentrations of deltamethrin and p-methyl in WHO resistance tests were 57 and 96%, respectively. Mortality of free-flying An. gambiae in huts with p-methyl WL and NWH (66 and 50%, respectively) was higher than with pyrethroid WL (32%; P < 0.001). Mortality with LLIN was 63%. Mortality with the combination of LLIN plus p-methyl NWH (61%) or LLIN plus p-methyl WL (73%) did not significantly improve upon the LLIN alone or p-methyl WL or NWH alone. Mosquitoes bearing the ace-1R were more likely to survive exposure to p-methyl WL and NWH. Selection of heterozygote and homozygote ace-1R or kdr genotypes was not less likely after exposure to combined LLIN and p-methyl treatments than to single p-methyl treatment. Blood-feeding rates were lower in huts with the pyrethroid LLIN (19%) than with p-methyl WL (72%) or NWH (76%); only LLIN contributed to personal protection. Conclusions Combining p-methyl WL or NWH with LLINs provided no improvement in An. gambiae control or personal protection over LLIN alone in southern Côte d’Ivoire; neither did the combination manage resistance. Additional resistance mechanisms to kdr and ace-1R probably contributed to the survival of pyrethroid and organophophate-resistant mosquitoes. The study demonstrates the challenge that malaria control programmes will face if resistance to multiple insecticides continues to spread.
    Malaria Journal 10/2014; 13(1):396. DOI:10.1186/1475-2875-13-396 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Malaria control is heavily dependent on the use of insecticides that target adult mosquito vectors via insecticide treated nets (ITNs) or indoor residual spraying (IRS). Four classes of insecticide are approved for IRS but only pyrethroids are available for ITNs. The rapid rise in insecticide resistance in African malaria vectors has raised alarms about the sustainability of existing malaria control activities. This problem might be particularly acute in Côte d¿Ivoire where resistance to all four insecticide classes has recently been recorded. Here we investigate temporal trends in insecticide resistance across the ecological zones of Côte d¿Ivoire to determine whether apparent pan-African patterns of increasing resistance are detectable and consistent across insecticides and areas.Methods We combined data on insecticide resistance from a literature review, and bioassays conducted on field-caught Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes for the four WHO-approved insecticide classes for ITN/IRS. The data were then mapped using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the IR mapper tool to provide spatial and temporal distribution data on insecticide resistance in An. gambiae sensu lato from Côte d¿Ivoire between 1993 and 2014.ResultsBioassay mortality decreased over time for all insecticide classes, though with significant spatiotemporal variation, such that stronger declines were observed in the southern ecological zone for DDT and pyrethroids than in the central zone, but with an apparently opposite effect for the carbamate and organophosphate. Variation in relative abundance of the molecular forms, coupled with dramatic increase in kdr 1014F frequency in M forms (An. coluzzii) seems likely to be a contributory factor to these patterns. Although records of resistance across insecticide classes have become more common, the number of classes tested in studies has also increased, precluding a conclusion that multiple resistance has also increased.Conclusion Our analyses attempted synthesis of 22 years of bioassay data from Côte d¿Ivoire, and despite a number of caveats and potentially confounding variables, suggest significant but spatially-variable temporal trends in insecticide resistance. In the light of such spatio-temporal dynamics, regular, systematic and spatially-expanded monitoring is warranted to provide accurate information on insecticide resistance for control programme management.
    Parasites & Vectors 11/2014; 7(1):500. DOI:10.1186/PREACCEPT-2061731242135355 · 3.25 Impact Factor

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