Incidence of venous thromboembolism in users of strontium ranelate: an analysis of data from a prescription-event monitoring study in England.
ABSTRACT Strontium ranelate is indicated for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. An association between strontium ranelate and venous thromboembolism (VTE) was identified in an analysis of phase III clinical trials.
To estimate the incidence of VTE in patients within the strontium ranelate (Protelos(R)) Prescription-Event Monitoring (PEM) study cohort during the first 12 months after starting treatment.
Patients in this analysis were identified from dispensed prescriptions that had been issued by general practitioners (GPs) in England for strontium ranelate between October 2004 and January 2008. For each individual patient, a Green Form questionnaire was sent to their GP 12 months after the date of the first prescription issued for strontium ranelate, requesting information about the patient including start and stop dates of treatment (if stopped), age, sex, indication, any history of VTE events, reasons for stopping and whether the patient had any events since starting the drug. VTE was defined as reports of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE). The crude incidence of VTE was calculated for events that occurred during the first 12 months after starting treatment (plus 30 days after stopping), with 95% Poisson exact CIs for the whole cohort, and subsets defined by age and past history of VTE.
The final analysis cohort consisted of 10 782 patients. Where specified, mean age was 73.3 years (SD 11.45) [n = 10 696]; 9833 (91.3%) were female and 934 (8.7%) were male. Where the history of VTE was specified, 233 patients (2.6%) had a history of VTE prior to starting. In the first 12-month period, there were 48 incident reports of VTE (DVT or PE) during treatment (or within 30 days of stopping) in the cohort, with 7696.89 years of exposure, giving a crude incidence rate of VTE of 6.24 cases (95% CI 4.60, 8.27) per 1000 patient-years exposed.
This analysis has provided an estimate of the incidence of VTE in patients treated with strontium ranelate in the general practice setting. The rate is similar to estimates in populations of similar age and corresponds to the incidence found in patients from phase III clinical studies and observational cohort studies of strontium ranelate on this topic. The crude annual incidence rate of VTE in the PEM cohort is higher than the background annual incidence rate found in the UK population, but is similar to estimates in populations of similar age and populations receiving treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Also, we acknowledge the potential for underestimating the incidence in this population. Nevertheless, this analysis contributes to the ongoing postmarketing safety assessment of this product.
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ABSTRACT: National registers showed that a large proportion of patients treated with strontium ranelate have conditions that may now contraindicate use. The risk of death in strontium ranelate-treated patients was significantly higher than that seen in users of other osteoporosis drugs even after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factor profile. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) recently warned that strontium ranelate should be avoided in patients with ischaemic heart disease (IHD), peripheral vascular disease (PVD) or cerebrovascular disease (CVD), and in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. We investigated to what extent patients beginning strontium ranelate had cardiovascular conditions and determined the rates of MI, stroke and death. Using the Danish National Prescription Database, we identified all 3,252 patients aged 50+ who began strontium ranelate in 2005-2007 and 35,606 users of other osteoporosis drugs as controls. Hospital contacts and causes of death were retrieved from national registers. Patients starting strontium were older than patients treated with other osteoporosis drugs and more likely to suffer from IHD, PVD or CVD (combined prevalence 19.2 % in female users and 29.5 % in male users). The adjusted risk of MI was not significantly increased (women: HR 1.05 [95 % CI 0.79-1.41, p = 0.73]; men: 1.28 [0.74-2.20, p = 0.38]). For stroke, the adjusted HR was 1.23 (0.98-1.55, p = 0.07) in women and 1.64 (0.99-2.70, p = 0.05) in men. All-cause mortality was higher in strontium users (women: adjusted HR 1.20 [1.10-1.30, p < 0.001]; men: adjusted HR 1.22 [1.03-1.45, p < 0.05]). Patients treated with strontium ranelate have an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile compared with users of other osteoporosis drugs. However, only the risk of death differed significantly from the rates observed in users of other osteoporosis drugs adjusted for risk factor profile. A large proportion of patients currently treated with strontium ranelate have conditions that would now be considered contraindications according to EMA.Osteoporosis International 08/2013; 25(2). DOI:10.1007/s00198-013-2469-4 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the phenomenon that a fairly large amount of speech sound is radiated from the outer surface of vocal organs. It is shown that the quantity of radiation from the wall is not always negligibly small but rather large especially in hyperbaric atmosphere as in the diver's speech, and that it is varied depending on the vocal tract configuration. It is also shown that the higher formant peaks in the "wallsound" are almost vanished in the air speech but still remain some extent in the helium speech. Those findings are obtained from a simulation of speech radiation, and evidenced by the experimental measurement of the sounds from lips and others of talkers in several atmospheric pressures from 1ATA to 31ATA of helium-oxygen gas mixture.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a chronic disease that exerts a significant burden on both individuals and the community. Hence, there is a requirement for long-term treatment to be associated with a positive benefit-risk balance. Areas covered: In this descriptive review, the long-term safety of calcitonin, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), bisphosphonates, denosumab and strontium ranelate was reviewed based on randomized controlled trials of 3 years or longer supplemented by extension study data and data from large, observational studies. Expert opinion: Rare adverse events become apparent with all currently available treatments for osteoporosis with long-term therapy. Due to the rarity of these adverse events and to the worldwide burden of osteoporosis, the benefit-risk balance remains in favor of the beneficial effects of treatment on an outcome rather than the probability of an adverse effect. No single antiosteoporosis agent is appropriate for all patients. Treatment decisions should be made on an individual basis, taking into account the relative benefits and risks in different patient populations.Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 04/2013; DOI:10.1517/14740338.2013.793669 · 2.74 Impact Factor