Association between Genetic Variants in the 8q24 Cancer Risk Regions and Circulating Levels of Androgens and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention (Impact Factor: 4.13). 07/2010; 19(7):1848-54. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0101
Source: PubMed


Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple independent regions on chromosome 8q24 that are associated with cancers of the prostate, breast, colon, and bladder.
To investigate their biological basis, we examined the possible association between 164 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 8q24 risk regions spanning 128,101,433-128,828,043 bp, and serum androgen (testosterone, androstenedione, 3alphadiol G, and bioavailable testosterone), and sex hormone-binding globulin levels in 563 healthy, non-Hispanic, Caucasian men (55-74 years old) from a prospective cohort study (the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial). Age-adjusted linear regression models were used to determine the association between the SNPs in an additive genetic model and log-transformed biomarker levels.
Three adjacent SNPs centromeric to prostate cancer risk-region 2 (rs12334903, rs1456310, and rs980171) were associated with testosterone (P < 1.1 x 10(-3)) and bioavailable testosterone (P < 6.3 x 10(-4)). Suggestive associations were seen for a cluster of nine SNPs in prostate cancer risk region 1 and androstenedione (P < 0.05).
These preliminary findings require confirmation in larger studies but raise the intriguing hypothesis that genetic variations in the 8q24 cancer risk regions might correlate with androgen levels. Impact: These results might provide some clues for the strong link between 8q24 and prostate cancer risk.

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Available from: Jocelyn M Weiss, Apr 25, 2014
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    • "Both genetic factors and environment factors may contribute to the multiplicity of SHBG [52]. These variants may play an important role in some common human diseases [52], including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) [53] and some cancers [54], [55]. The genetic variation in SHBG was implicated to influence prostate cancer susceptibility [54]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is known as a carrier protein. It is classically thought to be mainly synthesized in the liver and then secreted into the circulating system, where it binds to sex steroids with a high affinity and modulates the bio-availability of the hormones. Other organs known to produce SHBG include brain, uterus, testis, prostate, breast and ovary, and the local expressed SHBG may play an important role in tumor development. However, SHBG expression status and its clinicopathological significance in ovarian cancer cells are not reported yet. In our present study, we examined and found the variable SHBG expression in four ovarian cancer cell lines (OV-90, OVCAR-3, SKOV-3 and ES-2) by immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. We then extended our study to 248 ovarian carcinoma samples, which were collected at The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital with complete clinical information, and discovered that SHBG was variably expressed in these ovarian carcinomas. Higher level of SHBG expression was significantly associated with more aggressive histological subtype (p = 0.022), higher FIGO stage (p = 0.018) and higher histological grade (grade of differentiation, p = 0.020), although association between SHBG expression and OS/PFS was not observed. Our results demonstrate that ovarian cancer cells produce SHBG and higher SHBG expression in ovarian carcinoma is associated with unfavorable clinicopathological features.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e83238. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0083238 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Recently, several genome wide association studies or studies of specific candidate SNPs revealed additional loci to be associated with breast cancer including the same chromosomal region 8q24 as for the OPG gene [40-49]. The majority of the association on chromosome 8q24 lies at approximately 128 Mb and is related to several tumor entities (prostate [50], colon [51]) in addition to breast cancer. Each locus within the 128 Mb bears epigenetic enhancer elements and forms chromatin loops with the myc proto-oncogene located several hundred kilobases telomeric [52]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK), its ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) have been reported to play a role in the pathophysiological bone turnover and in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Based on this we investigated the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within RANK, RANKL and OPG and their possible association to breast cancer risk. Methods Genomic DNA was obtained from Caucasian participants consisting of 307 female breast cancer patients and 396 gender-matched healthy controls. We studied seven SNPs in the genes of OPG (rs3102735, rs2073618), RANK (rs1805034, rs35211496) and RANKL (rs9533156, rs2277438, rs1054016) using TaqMan genotyping assays. Statistical analyses were performed using the χ2-tests for 2 x 2 and 2 x 3 tables. Results The allelic frequencies (OR: 1.508 CI: 1.127-2.018, p=0.006) and the genotype distribution (p=0.019) of the OPG SNP rs3102735 differed significantly between breast cancer patients and healthy controls. The minor allele C and the corresponding homo- and heterozygous genotypes are more common in breast cancer patients (minor allele C: 18.4% vs. 13.0%; genotype CC: 3.3% vs. 1.3%; genotype CT: 30.3% vs. 23.5%). No significantly changed risk was detected in the other investigated SNPs. Additional analysis showed significant differences when comparing patients with invasive vs. non-invasive tumors (OPG rs2073618) as well as in terms of tumor localization (RANK rs35211496) and body mass index (RANKL rs9533156 and rs1054016). Conclusions This is the first study reporting a significant association of the SNP rs3102735 (OPG) with the susceptibility to develop breast cancer in the Caucasian population.
    BMC Cancer 01/2013; 13(1):40. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-13-40 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PC) is the most common malignancy observed in men. It is evident that genetic factors play some important roles in PC etiology. Recently, genome-wide association studies in diverse ethnic groups have identified more than 40 germline variants of various genes or chromosomal loci that are significantly associated with PC susceptibility, including multiple 8q24 loci, prostate-specific genes, metabolic and hormone-related genes, and many regions where no coding gene is annotated. However, there are only a few variants or genes for which biological significance or functions have been elucidated so far. The greatest challenge related to genome-wide association studies loci in prostate genomics is to understand the functional consequences of these PC-associated loci and their involvement in PC biology and carcinogenesis. There have been attempts to determine PC risk estimations by combining multiple PC-associated variants for clinical tests, and these can identify a very minor population with high risk of PC. However, they cannot distinguish risk of aggressive PC from that of non-aggressive PC. Further identification of PC-susceptibility loci in larger genome-wide association studies cohorts and biological insights gained from such functional analyses have the potential to translate into clinical benefits, including the development of reliable biomarkers, risk estimation, and effective strategies for screening and prevention of PC.
    Cancer Science 12/2011; 103(4):607-13. DOI:10.1111/j.1349-7006.2011.02193.x · 3.52 Impact Factor
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