Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of ticagrelor in healthy subjects.
ABSTRACT Ticagrelor [(1S,2S,3R,5S)-3-[7-[[(1R,2S)-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl) cyclopropyl]amino]-5-(propylthio)-3H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-5-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-1,2-cyclopentanediol)] is a reversibly binding oral P2Y(12) receptor antagonist in development for the prevention of thrombotic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes. The pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and excretion of ticagrelor were investigated over 168 h in six healthy male subjects receiving a single oral suspension dose of 200 mg of [(14)C]ticagrelor. Ticagrelor was rapidly absorbed with a maximum plasma concentration at 1.5 h. The major active metabolite, AR-C124910XX, is formed by O-deethylation. Exposure to AR-C124910XX was 29% of peak and 40% of overall exposure to ticagrelor. In most subjects, radioactivity was undetectable in plasma after 20 h and whole blood after 12 h (half-life values of 6.3 and 4.6 h, respectively). The ratio of radioactivity in plasma to whole blood was 1.69, suggesting that ticagrelor and its metabolites are largely restricted to the plasma space. Mean radioactivity recovery was 26.5% in urine and 57.8% in feces. Major circulating components in the plasma and feces were identified as ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX, whereas in urine the major components were metabolite M5 (AR-C133913XX) and its glucuronide conjugate M4. Levels of unchanged ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were <0.05% in the urine, indicating that renal clearance of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX is of minor importance. Interindividual variability was small in both urine and fecal extracts with only small quantitative differences. All 10 of the metabolites were fully or partially characterized and a full biotransformation pathway was proposed for ticagrelor, in which oxidative loss of the hydroxyethyl side chain from ticagrelor forms AR-C124910XX and a second oxidative pathway leads to N-dealkylation of ticagrelor, forming AR-C133913XX.
- SourceAvailable from: informahealthcare.comJournal of Drug Assessment. 04/2013; 2.
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ABSTRACT: The P2Y12 inhibitors, clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor, are administered in fixed doses without laboratory monitoring. Randomized trials in acute coronary syndrome have shown that prasugrel and ticagrelor are more effective than standard dose clopidogrel. Nonetheless, standard dose clopidogrel remains widely used because it causes less bleeding and is less expensive. Patients treated with standard dose clopidogrel have substantial variability in platelet inhibition, which is partly explained by genetic polymorphisms encoding CYP2C19, the hepatic enzyme involved in biotransformation of clopidogrel to its active metabolite. Some advocate tailoring P2Y12 inhibitor therapy according to the results of routine laboratory testing. Although there is good evidence for analytic, biological and clinical validity of several phenotypic and genotypic biomarkers, the benefit of a management strategy that incorporates routine biomarker testing over standard of care without such testing remains unproven. Appropriately designed, adequately powered trials are needed, but face the challenges of feasibility, cost, and the progressive switch from clopidogrel to prasugrel or ticagrelor.Blood 06/2014; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dual antiplatelet therapy, composed of aspirin plus a P2Y12-receptor antagonist, is the cornerstone of treatment for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). A number of U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved P2Y12-receptor antagonists are available for treating patients with ACS, including the thienopyridine compounds clopidogrel and prasugrel. Ticagrelor, the first of a new class of antiplatelet agents, is a noncompetitive, direct-acting P2Y12-receptor antagonist. Unlike the thienopyridine compounds, ticagrelor does not require metabolism for activity. Also, whereas clopidogrel and prasugrel are irreversible inhibitors of the P2Y12 receptor, ticagrelor binds reversibly to inhibit receptor signaling and subsequent platelet activation. In pharmacodynamic studies, ticagrelor demonstrated faster onset and more potent inhibition of platelet aggregation than clopidogrel. These properties of ticagrelor may contribute to reduced rates of thrombotic outcomes compared with clopidogrel, as demonstrated in a phase III clinical trial. However, in addition to bleeding, distinctive adverse effects of this new chemical entity have not been reported with the thienopyridine P2Y12-receptor inhibitors. Although ticagrelor represents an advancement in P2Y12-receptor inhibition therapy, a thorough understanding of this compound as an antiplatelet therapy remains to be elucidated.Pharmacotherapy 08/2014; 34(10). · 2.31 Impact Factor