Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion of Ticagrelor in Healthy Subjects
ABSTRACT Ticagrelor [(1S,2S,3R,5S)-3-[7-[[(1R,2S)-2-(3,4-difluorophenyl) cyclopropyl]amino]-5-(propylthio)-3H-1,2,3-triazolo[4,5-d]pyrimidin-3-yl]-5-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-1,2-cyclopentanediol)] is a reversibly binding oral P2Y(12) receptor antagonist in development for the prevention of thrombotic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes. The pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and excretion of ticagrelor were investigated over 168 h in six healthy male subjects receiving a single oral suspension dose of 200 mg of [(14)C]ticagrelor. Ticagrelor was rapidly absorbed with a maximum plasma concentration at 1.5 h. The major active metabolite, AR-C124910XX, is formed by O-deethylation. Exposure to AR-C124910XX was 29% of peak and 40% of overall exposure to ticagrelor. In most subjects, radioactivity was undetectable in plasma after 20 h and whole blood after 12 h (half-life values of 6.3 and 4.6 h, respectively). The ratio of radioactivity in plasma to whole blood was 1.69, suggesting that ticagrelor and its metabolites are largely restricted to the plasma space. Mean radioactivity recovery was 26.5% in urine and 57.8% in feces. Major circulating components in the plasma and feces were identified as ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX, whereas in urine the major components were metabolite M5 (AR-C133913XX) and its glucuronide conjugate M4. Levels of unchanged ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX were <0.05% in the urine, indicating that renal clearance of ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX is of minor importance. Interindividual variability was small in both urine and fecal extracts with only small quantitative differences. All 10 of the metabolites were fully or partially characterized and a full biotransformation pathway was proposed for ticagrelor, in which oxidative loss of the hydroxyethyl side chain from ticagrelor forms AR-C124910XX and a second oxidative pathway leads to N-dealkylation of ticagrelor, forming AR-C133913XX.
- SourceAvailable from: Tong LiuInternational journal of cardiology 08/2015; 192:11-13. DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.05.023 · 6.18 Impact Factor
Article: Ticagrelor[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ticagrelor (Brilique™; Brilinta™), a cyclopentyl-triazolo-pyrimidine antiplatelet agent, is the first oral antagonist of the P2Y12 receptor to offer reversible receptor binding. It is indicated in the EU for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in adults with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) [unstable angina pectoris, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] or non-STEMI), including those managed medically or with percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Ticagrelor provides selective and reversible inhibition of adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation, with a faster onset and offset of action than that of clopidogrel, and is effective in the treatment of patients with ACS, with or without ST-segment elevation. In the large, randomized, double-blind, multicentre PLATO trial conducted in this patient population, ticagrelor was more effective than clopidogrel in terms of preventing ischaemic events over 12 months, providing a significantly lower risk of the primary composite endpoint of myocardial infarction, stroke or death from vascular causes, and was associated with an overall mortality benefit. The risk of major bleeding with ticagrelor, including bleeds related to CABG, did not differ from that seen with clopidogrel in this study, although ticagrelor was associated with more non-CABG-related major bleeds and fatal intracranial bleeding, albeit the latter bleeding events were rare. Further long-term and comparative efficacy and tolerability data are required to definitively position ticagrelor with respect to other antiplatelet agents, including prasugrel. However, the clinical data currently available indicate that ticagrelor is a promising option for the treatment of patients with ACS and may be of particular use in those at high risk of ischaemic events or unresponsive to clopidogrel.Drugs 01/2011; 71(7). DOI:10.2165/11206850-000000000-00000 · 4.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose Ticagrelor, a reversibly binding oral P2Y12 receptor antagonist, is predominantly metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A and both the parent compound and its active metabolite AR-C124910XX are substrates of P-glycoprotein. Rifampicin was used to assess the effects of CYP3A and P-glycoprotein induction on the single-dose pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ticagrelor. Methods Healthy volunteers received a single 180 mg oral dose of ticagrelor on days 1 and 15, and a once-daily 600 mg dose of rifampicin on days 4–17. Ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX plasma concentrations were quantified for pharmacokinetic analysis (n = 14); inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) was also assessed (n = 14). Results Compared with administration of ticagrelor alone, co-administration of ticagrelor and rifampicin significantly decreased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of ticagrelor from 1091 to 297.8 ng/ml, area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC) of ticagrelor from 6225 to 864.0 ng.h/ml, and also decreased plasma half-life of ticagrelor from 8.4 to 2.8 h; reductions of 73 %, 86 % and 67 % respectively. With rifampicin, AR-C124910XX Cmax was unaffected, AUC was significantly decreased by 46 %, and metabolite to parent ratio for AUC increased fourfold. Although maximal IPA was unaffected, offset of ticagrelor-mediated IPA was more rapid in the presence of rifampicin; a significant reduction (27 %) in the area under the effect curve between 0 and 24 h was observed following co-administration with rifampicin. Conclusion Co-administration with rifampicin reduced ticagrelor exposure and resulted in a more rapid offset of ticagrelor-mediated IPA. Co-administration of strong CYP3A/P-glycoprotein inducers with ticagrelor should be discouraged.European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 10/2012; 69(4). DOI:10.1007/s00228-012-1436-x · 2.70 Impact Factor