Autophagy Shows Its Animal Side

Department of Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA.
Cell (Impact Factor: 32.24). 06/2010; 141(6):922-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2010.05.036
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Most autophagy genes have been discovered in the single-celled yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and little is known about autophagy genes that are specific to multicellular animals. In this issue, Tian et al. (2010) now identify four new autophagy genes: one specific to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and three conserved from worms to mammals.

2 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: DNA damage and/or hyperproliferative signals activate the wild-type p53 tumor suppressor protein, which induces a G(1) cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Although the mechanism of p53-mediated cell cycle arrest is fairly well defined, the p53-dependent pathway regulating apoptosis is poorly understood. Here we report the functional characterization of murine ei24 (also known as PIG8), a gene directly regulated by p53, whose overexpression negatively controls cell growth and induces apoptotic cell death. Ectopic ei24 expression markedly inhibits cell colony formation, induces the morphological features of apoptosis, and reduces the number of beta-galactosidase-marked cells, which is efficiently blocked by coexpression of Bcl-X(L). The ei24/PIG8 gene is localized on human chromosome 11q23, a region frequently altered in human cancers. These results suggest that ei24 may play an important role in negative cell growth control by functioning as an apoptotic effector of p53 tumor suppressor activities.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology 02/2000; 20(1):233-41. DOI:10.1128/MCB.20.1.233-241.2000 · 4.78 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To characterize the emergency program set up by pancreatic cells in response to pancreatitis, we established the phenotype of the pancreatitis-affected pancreas by characterizing a large number of its transcripts. In this report, we describe the cloning, sequencing, and expression pattern of a new gene, named VMP1 (vacuole membrane protein 1). The VMP1 mRNA codes for a putative protein of 406 amino acids. In situ hybridization studies revealed that pancreatic expression of VMP1 mRNAs was restricted to the acinar cells. Interestingly, VMP1 mRNA was also overexpressed in kidney after transient ischemic injury. However, many healthy tissues express VMP1 mRNA. Structure analysis suggested that VMP1 is a transmembrane protein with six hydrophobic regions. VMP1/EGFP fusion protein was located to the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum area. Expression of this protein promoted the formation of intracytoplasmatic vacuoles and VMP1/EGFP was located to the membranes of these vacuoles. Cells overexpressing this protein died after 48 h. In conclusion, we have identified a new stress-induced gene which codes for a transmembrane protein that, when overexpressed, promotes formation of intracellular vacuoles followed by cell death.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2002; 290(2):641-9. DOI:10.1006/bbrc.2001.6244 · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The elucidation of the human genome sequence has made it possible to identify genetic alterations in cancers in unprecedented detail. To begin a systematic analysis of such alterations, we determined the sequence of well-annotated human protein-coding genes in two common tumor types. Analysis of 13,023 genes in 11 breast and 11 colorectal cancers revealed that individual tumors accumulate an average of ∼90 mutant genes but that only a subset of these contribute to the neoplastic process. Using stringent criteria to delineate this subset, we identified 189 genes (average of 11 per tumor) that were mutated at significant frequency. The vast majority of these genes were not known to be genetically altered in tumors and are predicted to affect a wide range of cellular functions, including transcription, adhesion, and invasion. These data define the genetic landscape of two human cancer types, provide new targets for diagnostic and therapeutic intervention, and open fertile avenues for basic research in tumor biology.
    Science 11/2006; 314(5797):268-74. DOI:10.1126/science.1133427 · 33.61 Impact Factor


2 Reads
Available from