Morbidity and Mortality in Craniopharyngioma Patients after Surgery

Academic Department of Endocrinology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, UK.
Clinical Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 3.46). 10/2010; 73(4):516-21. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2010.03838.x
Source: PubMed


Craniopharyngioma (CP) is a benign tumour of the suprasellar region that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in comparison with other causes of hypopituitarism. We aimed to establish the rate and causes of mortality and morbidity in patients with CP who attended our centre.
We performed a retrospective case note audit of patients with CP who were managed by our service. We established the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for patients with CP. We compared obesity prevalence with two other hypopituitary groups who are managed by our service.
We identified 70 patients with CP, 97% of whom had undergone surgery and 42% radiotherapy. We compared the prevalence of obesity with that of 89 patients with hypopituitarism secondary to surgery for nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma and 29 patients with post-traumatic hypopituitarism (PTHP).
Standardized mortality ratio for patients with CP was 8.75 (95% CI of 5.4-13.3); SMR for women was 10.51 (95% CI 5.04-19.3) and 7.55 (95% CI 3.77-13.52) for men. The rates of growth hormone (GH), gonadotrophin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and TSH deficiencies were 91%, 93.5%, 92% and 86%, respectively. The rate of diabetes insipidus (DI) was 81%; 7.1% had adipsic DI. Dyslipidaemia was present in 46.9% and diabetes mellitus in 11.5%. Obesity affected 66% of patients with CP, 47% of patients with nonfunctioning adenoma and 31% of those with PTHP (P < 0.001).
Patients with CP suffer from high rates of mortality and morbidity. The underlying causes for mortality and for obesity in this population remain poorly understood.

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    • "The overall 10-year survival rates for CPs presently range from 85% to 90%[3183] and 62% to 76%[1485] at 20 years, with mortality beyond that infrequently due to disease progression.[16] Mortini et al.[58] recently reported a loss of independence in activities of daily living and a decreased quality of life on long-term follow up after surgery in CPs. "
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    ABSTRACT: Craniopharyngiomas (CPs) are slow growing tumors with an incidence of between 1.2% and 4.6%, having a bimodal age distribution typically peaking in childhood and in adults between 45 and 60 years. Recurrences occur even after documented gross total resections necessitating a combination of therapeutic strategies. Obtaining a cure of this tumor in adults without producing major side effects continues to remain elusive. We describe our results in 11 patients with CP treated in a minimally invasive fashion using a combination of techniques like burr hole aspiration, Ommaya reservoir placement, ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunting and focal radiation (Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery/Intensity modulated radiotherapy [GKRS/IMRT]). Visual function remained intact in all patients; endocrine status remained stable with two patients developing new postoperative diabetes insipidus. There was no periprocedural morbidity or mortality, with hospital stays for any in-patient procedure being 48 hours or less. Minimally invasive techniques such as cyst aspiration, insertion of a catheter with Ommaya reservoir, when combined with stereotactic radiosurgery/IMRT is an effective and safe option for management and long-term control of adult CPs. We believe the Ommaya catheter by itself could act as a stent, creating a tract allowing gradual drainage of cyst fluid and stabilization without necessitating any further interventions in selected cases.
    Surgical Neurology International 11/2013; 4(Suppl 6):S411-S421. DOI:10.4103/2152-7806.121612 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    • "Although considered benign lesions by biological means, the (surgical) treatment of craniopharyngiomas remains a true challenge for physicians (Komotar et al., 2009; Crowley et al., 2010). The problems accompanied by craniopharyngiomas are caused by the delicate location of these tumors, supposedly arising from remnants of the Rathke’s pouch and connected to neuroendocrine tissue of the pituitary, the pituitary stalk, or/and hypothalamic structures. "
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    ABSTRACT: Craniopharyngiomas are biologically benign lesions (WHO Grade 1) of the sellar and suprasellar region, associated with a serious morbidity. About 50% of these tumors become clinically apparent during childhood. Clinical symptoms include headaches, chiasm syndrome, hydrocephalus, pituitary insufficiencies, and obesity. Growth arrest is a typical symptom in children. The treatment of craniopharyngiomas includes surgery as well as radiotherapy. The goal of surgery varies according to the tumor location and extension and may range from complete resection to biopsy. Surgical complications are well known and cause constant evaluation of surgical strategies. Diencephalic obesity is related to surgical manipulation of hypothalamic tissue. Therefore, a classification system for craniopharyngiomas based on preoperative MRI is suggested by the authors. Recurrences are frequent in craniopharyngiomas, even after complete or gross-total resection. Radiotherapy is therefore recommended to patients with incomplete resections. However, the ideal time for radiotherapy after surgery is under discussion. The treatment of craniopharyngiomas requires an interdisciplinary and multimodal approach. Each patient should receive an individually tailored treatment. Surgically, different approaches as well as different degrees of resection can be considered, depending on tumor location and tumor extension.
    Frontiers in Endocrinology 12/2011; 2:96. DOI:10.3389/fendo.2011.00096
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    ABSTRACT: Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) has emerged as a valuable adjuvant treatment modality for recurrent or residual craniopharyngioma. However, prognostic factors pertaining to progression-free survival (PFS) remain poorly understood. A study was conducted to address this issue. A total of 37 consecutive patients undergoing 39 sessions of GKS procedures targeting the solid portions of the tumors at our institution between 1989 and 2005 were analyzed. Twenty-one male and 16 female patients comprised this study. Median age at GKS was 36 years (range, 4-78). Median tumor volume was 1.6 cm(3) (range, 0.1-18.6), median marginal dose was 14.5 Gy (range, 6-25), and median maximal dose was 30 Gy (range, 15.6-60). Median follow-up was 50 months (range, 8-212). Univariate and multivariate analyses using Cox proportional hazards model were employed to identify the potential prognostic factors including tumor volume, marginal dose, gender, age at GKS, and status of visual field defect (VFD) in terms of in-field PFS. The actuarial 3- and 5-year in-field PFS were 84.8 and 67.0%, respectively. On univariate analysis, absence of VFD at GKS was a favorable prognostic factor (hazard ratio: 0.279; 95% CI, 0.085-0.913, P = 0.035), whereas on multivariate analysis, absence of VFD at GKS, tumor volume ≤1.6 cm(3), and marginal dose >14.5 Gy related to a longer in-field PFS. GKS may offer reasonable control of recurrent or residual craniopharyngiomas. There was a consistent correlation between absence of VFD at the time of GKS and in-field PFS.
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