Distribution and determinants of pesticide mixtures in cord serum using principal component analysis.
ABSTRACT We characterized the distribution and determinants of fetal exposures to pesticide mixtures using a cross-sectional study of 297 singletons delivered at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, MD (2004-2005). Concentrations of nine persistent and twelve nonpersistent pesticides were measured in cord serum. Mixtures were identified using principal components analysis. Associations between mixtures and maternal and infant characteristics were evaluated using multivariate analysis. p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, bendiocarb, propoxur, and trans- and cis-permethrin were detected in 100, 90, 93, 84, 73, 55, 52, and 41% of serum samples, respectively. There were four independent pesticide components: DDT (p,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE), chlordane (trans-nonachlor + oxychlordane), permethrin (trans- and cis-permethrins + PBUT), and carbamate (bendiocarb + propoxur). DDT and chlordane were 6.1 (95%CI: 2.4, 15.5) and 2.1 (95%CI: 1.0, 4.2) times higher for infants of women >35, and 1.8 (95%CI: 1.2, 2.9) and 1.5 (95%CI: 1.1, 2.1) times higher in smoking mothers. DDT and carbamate were 15 (95%CI: 7, 30) and 2 (95%CI: 1, 4) times higher for infants of Asian compared with Caucasian mothers. No significant differences were observed for permethrin. Fetal exposures to pesticides are widespread, occur as mixtures, and differ by maternal race, age, and smoking status.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic exposure to non-persistent pesticides (NPPs) is of concern because these substances have been associated with chronic diseases. However, few studies have addressed chronic exposure to NPPs in Spanish populations. We determined the presence of 24 pesticide residues by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in 363 serum samples obtained from non-occupationally exposed adults from Tenerife island in 2007. Most of the samples (99.45%) showed detectable residues (6 ± 2 pesticides per sample). The most frequently detected pesticides were pyrethrins (96.1%), organophosphates (93.9%) and organochlorines (92.3%). The neurotoxicants bifenthrin and malathion were detected in 81% of the samples and hexachlorobenzene DDT and buprofezin in more than 50%. Malation, an "environmental obesogen", was detected in 82%, and "endocrine disrupter" pesticides were present in 97.2% of the samples. Because there is clear, continuous and inadvertent exposure to NPPs that may be inducing adverse effects on human health, NPPs should be included in biomonitoring studies.Gaceta Sanitaria 02/2014; · 1.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Contemporaneous associations between circulating maternal organochlorines (OCs) and measures of fetal heart rate and motor activity were evaluated. A panel of 47 OCs, including pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was analyzed from serum of 50 pregnant women at 36 weeks gestation. Data were empirically reduced into four factors and six individual compounds. All participants had detectable concentrations of at least one-quarter of the assayed OCs and, in general, higher socioeconomic level was associated with higher OC concentrations. Fetal heart rate measures were not consistently associated with maternal OCs. In contrast, one or more indicators of greater fetal motor activity were significantly associated with higher levels of the DDT and low chlorinated OC factors and five of the six individual compounds (heptachlor epoxide, trans nonachlor, oxychlordane, and PCBs 18 and 52). This preliminary demonstration of associations between fetal motor activity and maternal concentrations of persistent and pervasive environmental contaminants suggests that fetal assessment may be useful in ascertaining the potential early effects of these compounds on development.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 17 April 2013; doi:10.1038/jes.2013.19.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 04/2013; · 3.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pyrethroids are one of the most widely used classes of insecticides and show neurotoxic effects that induce oxidative stress in the neonatal rat brain. However, little is still known about effects of prenatal exposure to permethrin on vascular development in fetal brain, central nervous system development, and adult offspring behaviors. In this study, the effects of prenatal exposure to permethrin on the development of cerebral arteries in fetal brains, neurotransmitter in neonatal brains, and locomotor activities in offspring mice were investigated. Permethrin (0, 2, 10, 50, and 75 mg/kg) was orally administered to pregnant females once on gestation day 10.5. The brains of permethrin-treated fetuses showed altered vascular formation involving shortened lengths of vessels, an increased number of small branches, and, in some cases, insufficient fusion of the anterior communicating arteries in the area of circle of Willis. The prenatal exposure to permethrin altered neocortical and hippocampus thickness in the mid brain and significantly increased norepinephrine and dopamine levels at postnatal day 7 mice. For spontaneous behavior, the standing ability test using a viewing jar and open-field tests showed significant decrease of the standing ability and locomotor activity in male mice at 8 or 12 weeks of age, respectively. The results suggest that prenatal exposure to permethrin may affect insufficient development of the brain through alterations of vascular development. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 28:617-629, 2013.Environmental Toxicology 11/2013; 28(11):617-29. · 2.71 Impact Factor