Distribution and Determinants of Pesticide Mixtures in Cord Serum Using Principal Component Analysis
ABSTRACT We characterized the distribution and determinants of fetal exposures to pesticide mixtures using a cross-sectional study of 297 singletons delivered at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, MD (2004-2005). Concentrations of nine persistent and twelve nonpersistent pesticides were measured in cord serum. Mixtures were identified using principal components analysis. Associations between mixtures and maternal and infant characteristics were evaluated using multivariate analysis. p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, bendiocarb, propoxur, and trans- and cis-permethrin were detected in 100, 90, 93, 84, 73, 55, 52, and 41% of serum samples, respectively. There were four independent pesticide components: DDT (p,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE), chlordane (trans-nonachlor + oxychlordane), permethrin (trans- and cis-permethrins + PBUT), and carbamate (bendiocarb + propoxur). DDT and chlordane were 6.1 (95%CI: 2.4, 15.5) and 2.1 (95%CI: 1.0, 4.2) times higher for infants of women >35, and 1.8 (95%CI: 1.2, 2.9) and 1.5 (95%CI: 1.1, 2.1) times higher in smoking mothers. DDT and carbamate were 15 (95%CI: 7, 30) and 2 (95%CI: 1, 4) times higher for infants of Asian compared with Caucasian mothers. No significant differences were observed for permethrin. Fetal exposures to pesticides are widespread, occur as mixtures, and differ by maternal race, age, and smoking status.
SourceAvailable from: Octavio P Luzardo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective Chronic exposure to non-persistent pesticides (NPPs) is of concern because these substances have been associated with chronic diseases. However, few studies have addressed chronic exposure to NPPs in Spanish populations. Methods We determined the presence of 24 pesticide residues by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in 363 serum samples obtained from non-occupationally exposed adults from Tenerife island in 2007. Results Most of the samples (99.45%) showed detectable residues (6 ± 2 pesticides per sample). The most frequently detected pesticides were pyrethrins (96.1%), organophosphates (93.9%) and organochlorines (92.3%). The neurotoxicants bifenthrin and malathion were detected in 81% of the samples and hexachlorobenzene DDT and buprofezin in more than 50%. Malation, an “environmental obesogen”, was detected in 82%, and “endocrine disrupter” pesticides were present in 97.2% of the samples. Conclusions Because there is clear, continuous and inadvertent exposure to NPPs that may be inducing adverse effects on human health, NPPs should be included in biomonitoring studies.Gaceta Sanitaria 02/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.gaceta.2013.11.003 · 1.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Linear, short chain polyfluorinated and perfluorinated alkyl compounds, often referred to as PFCs, have been in worldwide use as surfactants and polymer precursors for decades, and environmental dispersal of these highly persistent compounds represent a public health threat. Whereas ubiquitous low-level exposure to these compounds has been demonstrated in human populations from around the world, the exact mechanisms of toxicity and their toxic potency remain subject to investigation and scientific dispute. As with other environmental exposures, a major hurdle for gaining a better understanding of their human health impacts is the limited utility of cell culture and animal models serving as convenient, yet imperfect proxies to human physiology and disease. The present communication provides a brief overview of the current understanding of potential health effects of PFC exposure and examines how new toxicoproteomic methodologies can provide insights on the molecular mechanism of PFC exposure. Furthermore, we showcase an exemplary dataset to illustrate how toxicoproteomic, population-wide studies might overcome limitations of animal models to more fully understand the physiology of PFCs and other environmental stressors where it matters most, in human populations experiencing real-world, chronic, low-level exposures.Journal of Proteome Research 10/2014; 14(1). DOI:10.1021/pr500990w · 5.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Synthetic pyrethroids are present in numerous commercial insecticide formulations and have extensive indoor and outdoor applications worldwide, including agricultural, public, residential, and veterinary usages for pest control. Pyrethroid use has increased continuously in recent years. The aim of this review is to provide updated and comprehensive information on human exposure and potential hazards associated with this class of pesticides. An initial keyword search in the PubMed database was conducted to identify relevant articles. Were taken into considerations only the studies published in the last decade that have assessed exposure and health effects of pyrethroids in human populations. Literature review shows that exposure evaluations increasingly focus on biomonitoring and that a large number of recent epidemiological studies pertain to the effects of pyrethroids on male fertility and prenatal development.International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ijheh.2015.01.002 · 3.28 Impact Factor