Distribution and Determinants of Pesticide Mixtures in Cord Serum Using Principal Component Analysis
ABSTRACT We characterized the distribution and determinants of fetal exposures to pesticide mixtures using a cross-sectional study of 297 singletons delivered at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, MD (2004-2005). Concentrations of nine persistent and twelve nonpersistent pesticides were measured in cord serum. Mixtures were identified using principal components analysis. Associations between mixtures and maternal and infant characteristics were evaluated using multivariate analysis. p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, bendiocarb, propoxur, and trans- and cis-permethrin were detected in 100, 90, 93, 84, 73, 55, 52, and 41% of serum samples, respectively. There were four independent pesticide components: DDT (p,p'-DDT + p,p'-DDE), chlordane (trans-nonachlor + oxychlordane), permethrin (trans- and cis-permethrins + PBUT), and carbamate (bendiocarb + propoxur). DDT and chlordane were 6.1 (95%CI: 2.4, 15.5) and 2.1 (95%CI: 1.0, 4.2) times higher for infants of women >35, and 1.8 (95%CI: 1.2, 2.9) and 1.5 (95%CI: 1.1, 2.1) times higher in smoking mothers. DDT and carbamate were 15 (95%CI: 7, 30) and 2 (95%CI: 1, 4) times higher for infants of Asian compared with Caucasian mothers. No significant differences were observed for permethrin. Fetal exposures to pesticides are widespread, occur as mixtures, and differ by maternal race, age, and smoking status.
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ABSTRACT: Previous research has shown that prenatal exposure to pesticides may be associated with decreased fetal growth. The specific pesticides investigated and results reported across studies have been inconsistent, and there is a mounting need for the consideration of mixtures rather than individual agents in studies of health outcomes in relation to environmental exposures. There are also many individual pesticides that have not been investigated in human health studies to date. We conducted a pilot study in rural Zhejiang province, China, measuring 20 non-persistent pesticides (10 insecticides, 6 herbicides, 3 fungicides, and 1 repellant) in umbilical cord blood of 112 full term (> 37 weeks) infants. The pesticides detected with the greatest frequency were diethyltoluamide (DEET) (73%), a repellant, and vinclozolin (49%), a fungicide. The samples had detectable concentrations for a mean of 4.6 pesticides (SD=1.9) with a maximum of 10. Adjusting for potential confounders, newborn birth weight was inversely associated with the number of pesticides detected in cord blood (p=0.04); birth weight decreased by a mean of 37.1g (95% CI, -72.5 to -1.8) for each detected pesticide. When assessing relationships by pesticide type, detection of fungicides was also associated with decreased birth weight (adjusted β=-116 g [95% CI, -212 to -19.2]). For individual pesticides analyzed as dichotomous (detect vs. non-detect) variables, only vinclozolin (adjusted β=-174 g [95% CI, -312 to -36.3]) and acetochlor (adjusted β=-165 g [95% CI, -325 to -5.7]) were significantly associated with reduced birth weight. No significant associations were seen between birth weight and individual pesticides assessed as continuous or 3-level ordinal variables. Our findings from this pilot investigation suggest that exposure to fungicides may adversely impact fetal growth. Exposure to mixtures of multiple pesticides is also of concern and should be explored in addition to individual pesticides. Additional research is needed to establish causality and to understand the function and impact of fungicides and pesticide mixtures on fetal development.Environment international 07/2012; 47:80-5. DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2012.06.007 · 5.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is an increasing need for rapid and easily interpreted in vitro assays to screen for possible cytotoxicity of pesticides. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the carbamate insecticide bendiocarb on mammalian and insect cell cultures. The cytotoxicity of this insecticide was evaluated by cell proliferation and cellular damage was assessed by evaluation of the cytopathic effect and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Cells of insect origin (Sf21) were the most sensitive to bendiocarb with significant (P < 0.01) suppression of their proliferative activity ranging from 10(-1)-10(-5) M. However, significant suppression of proliferative activity was also recorded in rat liver cells (WBF344; 10(-1)-10(-3) M; P < 0.01-0.05) and rabbit kidney cells (RK13; 10(-1) M; P < 0.01). In contrast with the proliferation activity of cells, a cytopathic effect based on cellular damage and LDH leakage into the medium was observed only at the highest concentration (10(-1) M) in RK 13 and WBF344 cells, but not in the Sf21 insect cell line. Our results indicate that bendiocarb exposure caused a cell-type dependent decrease in cell proliferation; however, cell damage and LDH leakage into the medium were not present or were strongly limited, dependent on the cell phenotype. Cell proliferation was shown as a sensitive indicator for evaluation of the cytotoxic effect of bendiocarb in vitro; on the other hand, microscopic signs of cellular damage and LDH leakage were insufficient in vitro markers.Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B Pesticides Food Contaminants and Agricultural Wastes 07/2012; 47(6):538-43. DOI:10.1080/03601234.2012.665671 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We sought to characterize the relationships between cord serum concentrations of chlordane and permethrin pesticides, inflammatory cytokines, gestational age, and size at birth. Umbilical cord serum levels of trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, cis- and trans-permethrin, piperonyl butoxide, and cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, GMCSF) were quantified in 300 newborns at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, MD (2004-2005). Principal component analyses were used to quantitate chlordane and permethrin mixtures and to identify independent cytokine components. Five cytokine components described 87% of the variance in cord serum cytokine levels; these (and predominant loadings) were as follows: (1) all 9 cytokines; (2) acute phase (IL-1β, IL-6); (3) anti-inflammatory (IL-10); (4) TNF-α; and (5) IL-1β. Of these, the TNF-α component was significantly associated with a 2-day decrease in gestational age. Chlordane was associated with lower levels of the pro-inflammatory IL-1β [β: -0.11 (-0.20, -0.02)]. Permethrin was negatively associated with the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 [β: -0.14 (-0.22, -0.05)]. Neither pesticides nor cytokines were significantly associated with birthweight, length, or head circumference, and pesticides were not associated with gestational age. Our findings suggest that chlordane and permethrin concentrations in cord blood may be associated with levels of inflammatory cytokines in the fetus.Environmental Science & Technology 02/2011; 45(4). DOI:10.1021/es103417j · 5.48 Impact Factor