Covalent immobilisation of protease and laccase substrates onto siloxanes.
ABSTRACT Immobilisation of enzyme substrates is a powerful tool in the detection of enzymes in the chemosphere and the environment. A siloxane based strategy for the covalent immobilisation of oxidoreductase and protease substrates was developed involving activation of silica gel and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as model carriers with (3-aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane or (3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (APTS, MPTS). Ferulic acid and L-Leucine-p-nitroanilide, Gly-Phe p-nitroanilide (GPpNA) and N-Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Leu p-nitroanilide (SAAPLpNA) as laccase and protein substrates, respectively, were covalently attached using glutaraldehyde or carbodiimide based cross-linking strategies. In contrast to conversion in solution, immobilised SAAPLpNA was hydrolysed much faster by protease than immobilised GPpNA indicating steric hindrance with decreasing chain length between point of attachment and site of enzyme attack. Immobilised ferulic acid was oxidised by laccase both in case of MPTS and APTS-modified silica gel giving clearly visible colour changes with Delta E values of 7.2 and 2.3, respectively after 24h of incubation, where Delta E describes the distance between two colours. Similarly, clearly visible colour changes with a Delta E value of 8.6 were seen after laccase treatment of ferulic acid immobilised on APTS activated PET as carrier. Limited surface hydrolysis of PET with a cutinase enhanced coupling of APTS and ferulic acid due to a larger number of hydroxyl groups available on the surface and consequently led to a higher colour difference of Delta E=12.2 after laccase oxidation. The covalent coupling product between ferulic acid and 1,3-bis(3-aminopropyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane was identified by LC-MS (M+1m/z601) and successfully oxidised with laccase.
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ABSTRACT: A lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus and cutinases from Thermobifida fusca and Fusarium solani hydrolysed poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabrics and films and bis(benzoyloxyethyl) terephthalate (3PET) endo-wise as shown by MALDI-Tof-MS, LC-UVD/MS, cationic dyeing and XPS analysis. Due to interfacial activation of the lipase in the presence of Triton X-100, a seven-fold increase of hydrolysis products released from 3PET was measured. In the presence of the plasticizer N,N-diethyl-2-phenylacetamide (DEPA), increased hydrolysis rates of semi-crystalline PET films and fabrics were measured both for lipase and cutinase. The formation of novel polar groups resulted in enhanced dye ability with additional increase in colour depth by 130% and 300% for cutinase and lipase, respectively, in the presence of plasticizer.Journal of Biotechnology 08/2009; 143(3):207-12. · 3.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An automated system for on-line measurement of enzyme activity is proposed. The system uses a flow injection manifold in the stopped-flow mode to measure initial reaction rates. The time during which the flow is halted is selected in such a way as to optimise the enzyme/substrate ratio for the correct determination of activity values. The proposed system was used to determine the activity of laccase produced by the fungus Trametes versicolor immobilised on nylon in a fixed-bed reactor used for treating pulp mill waste water.Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 07/1997; 48(2):168-173. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The behaviour of three different laccase-based graphite biosensors was studied in view of their use in agricultural or industrial waters polluted by phenolic compounds. Catechol was used as a substrate model. Laccase from Trametes versicolor was immobilized on one biosensor (type A electrode) by adsorption while, on the other two biosensor types, laccase was covalently bound through the carboxylic groups created on the graphite by means of treatment with an electric potential difference (type B electrode) or with nitric acid (type C electrode). In the latter two cases, hexamethylenediamine and glutaraldehyde were used as the spacer and the coupling agent, respectively. The extension of linear response range and the sensitivity and time stability of each biosensor type were investigated. The type C biosensor gave the best results and its electrochemical properties proved comparable to those reported by other authors.Journal of Molecular Catalysis B Enzymatic 01/2006; 41:97-102. · 2.82 Impact Factor