Evidence suggests that Candida can be sexually transmitted; however, the contribution of sexual transmission to the pathogenesis of genital candidosis needs further elucidation.
The aim was to evaluate genital candidosis and its transmissibility in heterosexual couples.
Heterosexual couples were recruited among attendees of an Sexually Transmitted Diseases clinic. Specimens for yeast culture were collected from the glans penis and inner preputial layer using direct impression on CHROMagar Candida medium; vaginal exudates were collected using a cotton swab with subsequent inoculation on CHROMagar Candida medium. Mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis was performed to compare Candida isolates from both partners.
A total of 64 couples were enrolled in the study. Frequency of sexual intercourse was significantly higher in couples where both partners yielded positive cultures and with at least one having genital candidosis (Odds ratios: 6.844; 95% CI 1.408-33.266). The same Candida species was found in both partners in 25% (16/64) of all couples but only 17.2% (11/64) were genetically similar. In total 12 of the 34 women suffering from vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC) had recurrent VVC (RVVC); two sexual partners of RVVC women (16.7%) had candida positive cultures, compared with 15 (68.2%) sexual partners of non RVVC women (Odds ratios: 0.093; 95% CI 0.016-0.544).
Only in a few heterosexual couples a genetic similarity of Candida species recovered from both partners was found. RVVC women were more likely to have an asymptomatic candida negative sexual partner. This study suggests that male genitalia do not represent a relevant reservoir for RVVC; thus, the relevance of sexual transmission should not be emphasized.
"For the 2010 survey, when respondents reported having had more than one STI and if the most recent was a genital candidiasis, they were asked about other STIs. As genital candidiasis has limited health consequences, with other predominant routes of acquisition than sexual, especially in women  , we excluded respondents who reported candidiasis as an STI from the analyses. "
"Sabouraud agar is the standard for fungal culture; however, chromogenic medium, such as CHROMagar Candida, resulted in the highest yield of Candida spp. and could detect polyfungal populations (Lisboa et al., 2010a; 2010b; 2011). The swab method of sampling the genital area is the procedure currently used by most clinicians to perform microscopy or culture (Dockerty and Sonnex, 1995). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fungal infections of the genitals are probably more common than realized; however, relatively few reports concerning fungal genital infections exist in the literature. In this review, the fungal microbiota of the penis are highlighted, and the epidemiological characteristics of Candida balanitis, penile pityriasis versicolor, and tinea genitalis are addressed. In addition, the benefits of circumcision on male genital infections are included. However, systemic mycoses affecting the penis and/or scrotum will not be addressed in this review. To obtain a reliable diagnosis of genital fungal infections, medical history, clinical examination, and mycological and histological investigations of the lesions are critical.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC) is the second most common cause of vaginitis after bacterial vaginosis, and it is diagnosed in up to 40% of women with vaginal complaints in the primary care setting. Reliable diagnosis of VVC requires a correlation of clinical features with mycological evidence. The mycological methods used for diagnosis include microscopic examination, fungal culture, and antigen tests. Fungal culture can reveal the species of organism(s) responsible for the infection and provide epidemiological data. This report reviews current knowledge about the available diagnostic methods and tests that accurately diagnose VVC, and highlights the importance of fungal culture.
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