HOMA-IR and QUICKI: decide on a general standard instead of making further comparisons
ABSTRACT To limit further comparisons between the two fasting indices Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI), and to examine their robustness in assessing insulin sensitivity.
A total of 191 obese children and adolescents (age 13.9 ± 2.9 years, BMI SDS 6.1 ± 1.6), who had undergone a Frequently Sampled Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (FSIVGTT), were included. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to compare indices in detecting insulin resistance and Bland-Altman plots to investigate agreement between three consecutive fasting samples when compared to using single samples.
ROC analysis showed that the diagnostic accuracy was identical for QUICKI and HOMA-IR [area under the curve (AUC) boys 0.80, 95%CI 0.70-0.89; girls 0.80, 0.71-0.88], while insulin had a nonsignificantly lower AUC (boys 0.76, 0.66-0.87; girls 0.75, 0.66-0.84). Glucose did not perform better than chance as a diagnostic test (boys 0.47, 0.34-0.60; girls 0.57, 0.46-0.68). Indices varied with consecutive sampling, mainly attributable to fasting insulin variations (mean maximum difference in HOMA-IR -0.8; -0.9 to -0.7).
Using both HOMA-IR and QUICKI in further studies is superfluous as these indices function equally well as predictors of the FSIVGTT sensitivity index. Focus should be on establishing a general standard for research and clinical purposes.
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- "Third, our subject population was largely exposed to AAPs with known metabolic side effects which makes translation of our results to other disease populations or populations exposed to other medications challenging. Fourth, we used a surrogate measure of insulin resistance, which, although not a direct measure of insulin resistance, has been highly correlated to more invasive measures such as the glucose clamps and the oral glucose tolerance test [25, 26]. HOMA-IR was used to make our findings more translatable to the clinic setting but more direct measures of insulin resistance would be useful in supporting our study's results. "
ABSTRACT: Atypical antipsychotics have become a common therapeutic option in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, these medications come with a high risk of metabolic side effects, particularly dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Therefore, identification of patients who are at increased risk for metabolic side effects is of great importance. The genetics of fatty acid metabolism is one area of research that may help identify such patients. Therefore, in this present study, we aimed to determine the effect of one commonly studied genetic polymorphism from both fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) and FADS2 gene on a surrogate measure of insulin resistance and lipid levels in a metabolically high-risk population of patients largely exposed to atypical antipsychotics. This study used a cross-sectional design, fasting blood draws, and genetic analysis to investigate associations between polymorphisms, haplotypes, and metabolic measures. A total of 320 subjects with schizophrenia (n = 226) or bipolar disorder (n = 94) were included in this study. The mean age of the population was 42.5 years and 45% were male. A significant association between FADS1 and FADS2 haplotypes was found with insulin resistance while controlling for confounders. Further investigation is required to replicate this finding.Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology 12/2013; 2013(3):596945. DOI:10.1155/2013/596945
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ABSTRACT: The urgent need to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is currently reaching epidemic proportions, has been a major focus of healthcare systems and policy makers worldwide. Pharmacological treatment and lifestyle interventions together with the control of cardiovascular risk factors are the main strategies to prevent or delay the onset of T2DM. The present review discusses the state of the art knowledge of effective therapeutic approaches (metformin, thiazolidinediones, nateglinides, α-glucosidase inhibitors, incretin-based and angiotensin-based therapies, weight reducers, statins, fibric acid derivatives), including surgery, and identifies the major lifestyle changes for specific target groups.European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 04/2011; 67(7):653-61. DOI:10.1007/s00228-011-1038-z · 2.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In epidemiological studies of childhood obesity, simple and reliable surrogate estimates of insulin sensitivity are needed because the gold standard, the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, is not feasible on a large scale. To examine the correlation of fasting and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-derived surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity with the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in obese adolescents with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, and diabetes. A total of 188 overweight/obese adolescents (10 to <20 yr old) who completed a standard 2-h OGTT and 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp were included. Fasting-derived surrogates [fasting glucose (G(F)), fasting insulin (I(F)), 1/I(F), G(F)/I(F), homeostasis model assessment and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index] and OGTT-derived surrogates [whole-body insulin sensitivity index and the ratio of glucose and insulin areas under the curve (Gluc(AUC)/Ins(AUC))] were calculated. We evaluated the correlations between the clamp-measured insulin sensitivity and the surrogate estimates and area under the receiver operating characteristic curves. Fasting indices (1/I(F), G(F)/I(F), homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity, and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index) correlated significantly with clamp insulin sensitivity (r = 0.82, 0.78, 0.81, and 0.80, respectively), with lower correlations between the OGTT surrogates and clamp (whole-body insulin sensitivity index, r = 0.77; Gluc(AUC)/Ins(AUC), r = 0.62). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves was more than or equal to 0.94 for all surrogates except Gluc(AUC)/Ins(AUC.) Across quartiles of clamp-measured insulin sensitivity, there was a significant overlap in individual values of I(F), 1/I(F), and G(F)/I(F). In obese adolescents with normal or impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, OGTT-derived surrogates do not offer any advantage over the simpler fasting indices, which correlate strongly with clamp insulin sensitivity. Surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity could be used in epidemiological studies but not to define insulin resistance in individual patients or research subjects.The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 04/2011; 96(7):2136-45. DOI:10.1210/jc.2010-2813 · 6.21 Impact Factor