Contingency management and levodopa-carbidopa for cocaine treatment: a comparison of three behavioral targets.
ABSTRACT New data support use of levodopa pharmacotherapy with behavioral contingency management (CM) as one efficacious combination in cocaine dependence disorder treatment. A potential mechanism of the combined treatment effects may be related to dopamine-induced enhancement of the saliency of contingently delivered reinforcers. Evidence to support this mechanism was sought by evaluating levodopa-enhancing effects across distinct CM conditions that varied in behavioral targets. A total of 136 treatment-seeking, cocaine dependent subjects participated in this 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of levodopa (vs. placebo) administered in combination with one of three behavioral CM conditions. In the CM-URINE condition, subjects received cash-valued vouchers contingent on cocaine-negative urine toxicology results. In the CM-ATTEND condition, the same voucher schedule was contingent on attending thrice weekly clinic visits. In the CM-MEDICATION condition, the same voucher schedule was contingent on Medication Event Monitoring Systems- and riboflavin-based evidence of pill-taking behavior. Primary outcomes associated with each CM target behavior were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models for repeated outcomes. CM responding in the CM-ATTEND and CM-MEDICATION conditions showed orderly effects, with each condition producing corresponding changes in targeted behaviors, regardless of medication condition. In contrast, CM responding in the CM-URINE condition was moderated by medication, with levodopa-treated subjects more likely to submit cocaine-negative urines. These findings specify the optimal target behavior for CM when used in combination with levodopa pharmacotherapy.
Article: Voucher reinforcement improves medication adherence in HIV-positive methadone patients: a randomized trial.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This clinical trial evaluated a contingency management intervention designed to improve medication adherence among HIV-positive methadone maintenance patients. After a 4-week baseline observation phase, eligible participants (N=66) were randomly assigned to: (a) medication coaching sessions every other week to assist with adherence strategies (comparison group) or (b) medication coaching plus voucher reinforcement for opening electronic medication caps on time (voucher group). Baseline adherence (percent doses taken/percent total possible doses) was 51% using electronic measurement, 75% using self-report and 75% using pill count. The intervention was provided for 12 weeks, with a 4-week follow-up. The primary outcome results of the clinical trial indicated effectiveness during the intervention, with significant mean adherence differences between voucher and comparison groups using electronic measurement (78% versus 56%), pill count (86% versus 75%), and self-report (87% versus 69%). Differences between groups faded after vouchers were discontinued. Contingency management shows promise as a strategy to promote antiretroviral medication adherence in this population.Drug and Alcohol Dependence 05/2007; 88(1):54-63. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We present a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the testis that metastasized from lung cancer. The patient, who had received left pneumonectomy 2 years earlier for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung, developed pulmonary metastasis, which was treated with chemotherapy. Although the recurrence regressed after treatment, the testicular tumor progressed gradually. Left radical orchiectomy was performed. Pathological examination revealed metastatic SCC. Testicular metastasis from lung cancer is a very rare disease.International Journal of Urology 07/2003; 10(6):350-2. · 1.75 Impact Factor