Aprepitant against pruritus in patients with solid tumours.

Medical Oncology, University Campus Bio-Medico, Rome, 00128 Rome, Italy.
Supportive Care in Cancer (Impact Factor: 2.09). 09/2010; 18(9):1229-30. DOI: 10.1007/s00520-010-0895-9
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: The itch-scratch reflex serves as a protective mechanism in everyday life. However, chronic persistent itching can be devastating. Despite the clinical importance of the itch sensation, its mechanism remains elusive. In the past decade, substantial progress has been made to uncover the mystery of itching. Here, we review the molecules, cells, and circuits known to mediate the itch sensation, which, coupled with advances in understanding the pathophysiology of chronic itching conditions, will hopefully contribute to the development of new anti-itch therapies. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biophysics Volume 43 is May 06, 2014. Please see for revised estimates.
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    ABSTRACT: Paraneoplastic pruritus is defined as pruritus that occurs before or during the natural evolution of a hematologic disease. The reported prevalence is 30% in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma. The severity of this pruritus has a very negative impact on patients' quality of life. Very few studies have been made to examine the efficacy of pharmacological treatments for this type of pruritus. One drug that appears to be effective in this respect is off-label aprepitant, a neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist.
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    ABSTRACT: Pruritus is a sensory phenomenon accompanying a broad range of systemic disorders including hematologic and lymphoproliferative disorders, metabolic and endocrine diseases, solid tumours, and infectious diseases. The molecular mechanisms involved in itch sensation remain enigmatic in most of these diseases. However, from studies in patients and animal models a large number of mediators and receptors responsible for scratching behaviour have been identified in recent years. New insights into the interplay between neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the initiation, modulation and sensitization of itch sensation have been acquired. This review highlights the current knowledge of the molecular mechanism involved in pruritus of systemic disorders and summarizes the signalling pathways of biogenic amines, neuropeptides, proteases, eicosanoids, cytokines, opioids, endocannabinoids, neurotrophins, phospholipids and other signalling molecules participating in pruritus.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease 07/2014; · 5.09 Impact Factor