Postactivation potentiation following different modes of exercise.

Cardiff School of Sport, University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (Impact Factor: 1.8). 07/2010; 24(7):1911-6. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181dc47f8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The performance characteristics of skeletal muscle are transient in nature and have been shown to be significantly affected by its contractile history, where the phenomenon of acute enhancement is termed postactivation potentiation (PAP). Acute enhancement of dynamic activity has been observed when preceded by resistance exercises; however little information exists for plyometric activity as a conditioning stimulus. In addition, no study has examined PAP effects on more than one subsequent performance trial. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether countermovement jump (CMJ) performance could be enhanced if preceded by heavy-resistance exercise or by dynamic plyometric activity over 3 trials. Thirteen anaerobically trained male subjects (mean +/- SD: age, 22 +/- 3 years; height, 182.4 +/- 4.3 cm; body mass, 82.7 +/- 9.2 kg) performed in a counterbalanced order 3 half squats using a 3 repetition maximum loading (SQUAT), a set of 24 contacts of lower body plyometric exercises (PLYO), or a control of no activity (REST) 5 minutes before each CMJ. Three sets of each treatment and CMJ were performed in total and maximal displacement (dmax), peak power (Ppeak), and peak vertical force (Fpeak) were recorded, whereas rate of force development and relative force (F/body mass) were calculated for every trial. No significant differences were revealed for any of the other variables, but greater displacement was found for SQUAT compared to REST or PLYO, whereas no differences were revealed for any of the conditions for the repeated trials. Although heavy resistance-induced PAP seems to enhance jump height compared to REST or PLYO in repeated CMJ performance, it has no additional benefit on repeated trials.

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    ABSTRACT: This study verified if a prior five repetition maximum (5RM) strength exercise would improve the cycling performance during a 20-km cycling time trial (TT20km). After determination of the 5RM leg press exercise load, eleven trained cyclists performed a TT20km in a control condition and 10-min after 4 sets of 5RM strength exercise bouts (potentiation condition). Oxygen uptake, blood lactate concentration, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and power output data were recorded during the TT20km. Cycling economy index was assessed before the TT20km and pacing strategy was analyzed assuming a "J-shaped" power output distribution profile. Results were a 6.1% reduction (p < 0.05) in the time to complete the TT20km, a greater cycling economy (p < 0.01) and power output in the first 10% of the TT20km (i.e. trend; p= 0.06) in the potentiation condition. However, no differences were observed in pacing strategy, physiological parameters and RPE between the conditions. These results suggest that 5RM strength exercise bouts improve the performance in a subsequent TT20km.
    The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 02/2014; 28(9):2513-2520. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two protocols of post-activation potentiation (PAP) on swim start performance (SS).Fourteen trained swimmers (10 men and 4 women) volunteered for this study. An intra-group design of randomised repetitive measurements was applied. A previous SS trial, performed after a standard warm up (SWU), served as a reference. Two methods of PAP, performed after one hour of rest, were randomly added to the SWU: i) three lunges at 85% of 1 repetition maximum (LWU), and ii) four repetitions on the flywheel device YoYo squat (YWU). Swimmers were tested in an SS eight minutes after the PAP warm-ups. Kinematic variables were collected using three underwater digital video cameras fixed poolside and operating at 25 Hz, and one high speed camera focused on the block and operating at 300Hz. Data obtained from the video analysis were processed using a repeated measures analysis of the variance.The mean horizontal velocity of the swimmer's flight improved after both PAP methods, with the greatest improvement after YWU (F2,12 = 47.042, p < 0.001; SWU= 3.63 ± 0.11; LWU= 4.15 ± 0.122; YWU= 4.89 ±0.12 m/s). After YWU, it took the subjects less time to cover a distance of five meters (F2,12 = 24.453, p < 0.001) and fifteen meters (F2,12 = 4.262, p < 0.04). Subjects also achieved a higher mean angular velocity of the knee extension (F2,12 = 23.286, p < 0.001) and a reduction of the time on the block (F2,12 = 6.595, p < 0.05).These results demonstrate that muscle performance in the execution of an SS is enhanced after a warm up with specific PAP protocols. YWU leads to the greatest improvement in the performance of the swimmer's start and, therefore, may be especially beneficial in short events.
    Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of a gluteal activation protocol (GA) on the performance of drop jumps performed on a force sledge apparatus. Fifteen sprinters performed 10 single-leg drop jumps on three days with a unilateral GA performed within the warm up on day 2. Ground contact time (CT), height jumped (HJ), maximum vertical ground reaction force (GRFmax) and vertical leg-spring stiffness (K vert) were calculated on all three days. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine mean differences on all variables across days. The results show significant differences on all variables between days 1 and 2 and on HJ and K vert between days 1 and 3 but no differences in any varables between days 2 and 3. This suggests that the improvements in day 2 were due to a practice/learning effect rather than the GA protocol. INTRODUCTION: This paper examines the use of low-load unilateral gluteal exercises on subsequent single leg drop jump performance to assess whether a post activation potentiation effect occurs. Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is the "transient increase in muscle contractile performance after previous contractile activity" (Sale, 2002). Previous research in complex training has examined whether the performance of heavy resistance exercise prior to explosive type movements such as plyometrics invokes a PAP effect. Comyns et al, (2011) reported acute improvements in ground contact time and leg stiffness following complex training. Recently, Crow et al (2012) examined the effect of low load gluteal exercises on countermovement jump performance and found an acute enhancement of peak power output. This enhancement has been attributed to PAP. According to the fitness-fatigue paradim (Plisk and Stone, 2003) a typical PAP effect should involve a reduction in performance immediately after the exercise stimulus followed by an enhancement some time later. Various research designs involving skills such as countermovement jumps and drop jumps to examine PAP, have failed to account for improvements in performance due to learning or practice effects that may occur in participants that are unaccustomed to performing these skills. The use of simple pre-test post-test designs may not be entirely suitable and therefore a 3 day design where participants complete a third bout of testing which mirrors that of the pre-test may allow researchers to identify whether improvements in performance occur due to learning or whether they can be attributed solely to PAP. It would be expected that learning effects would present as sustained improvement in performance on the 3 rd test day or a score similar to the 2 nd test day. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a low load unilateral gluteal activation protocol on single leg drop jump performance parameters including HJ, CT, GRFmax and K vert and determine, through the use of a 3 day design, if these effects can be attributed solely PAP or simply due to a learning effect. METHODS: Subjects: Fifteen participants were recruited for this study. All participants were sprint trained males (n=8) and females (n=7); age: 19.9 ±1.6 years; height: 173.9 ±11.7 cm; body mass: 67.5 ±11.1 kg (mean ±SD) and were injury free at the time of testing. Ethical approval was granted by the local University Research Ethics Committee and all participants completed an informed consent form before testing. Equipment: Force time data were collected using a force sledge angled at 30° to horizontal as described by Comyns et al, (2011). Force data were sampled at 1000 Hz and filtered using a Butterworth filter with a cut-off frequency of 50 Hz. Participants were secured in the sledge chair with their arms crossed to constrain potential involvement of the upper body in the performance of the drop jump.
    International Society of Biomechanics in Sport 2013; 07/2013


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